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away the other:—their delusion is extreme. The issue is simply this that they must lose that nobility of man

as well."


XVII. 1. Mencius said, “ To desire to be honoured is the common mind of men. And all men have in themselves that which is truly honourable. Only they do not think of it. 2. “The honour which men confer is not good hon

Those whom Chaou the Great ennobles he can make mean again. 3. “ It is said in the Book of Poetry,

"He has filled us with his wine,

He has satiated us with his goodness.? Satiated us with his goodness,' that is, satiated us with benevolence and righteousness, and he who is so, consequently, does not wish for the fat meat and finé millet of men. A good reputation and far-reaching praise fall to him, and he does not desire the elegant embroidered garments of men.”

XVIII. 1. Mencius said, “ Benevolence subdues its opposite just as water subdues fire. Those, however, who now-a-days practise benevolence do it as if with one cup of water they could save a whole waggon-load of fuel which was on fire, and when the flames were not extinguished, were to say that water cannot subdue fire. This conduct, moreover, greatly encourages those who are not benevolent.

2. “The final issue will simply be this--the loss of that small amount of benevolence."

XIX. Mencius said, “ Of all seeds the best are the five kinds of grain, yet if they be not ripe, they are not equal to the te or the pae. So, the value of benevolence depends entirely on its being brought to maturity.”

XX. 1. Mencius said, “E, in teaching men to shoot, made it a rule to draw the bow to the full, and his pupils also did the same.

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2. “A master workman, in teaching others, uses the compass and square, and his pupils do the same.



CHAPTER I. 1. A man of Jin asked the disciple Uhloo, saying, “ Is an observance of the rules of propriety in regard to eating, or the eating, the more important?” The answer was, The observance of the rules of

propriety is the more important.”

2. “ Is the gratifying the appetite of sex, or the doing so only according to the rules of propriety, the more important ?” The answer again was, “ The observance of the rules of propriety in the matter is the more important."

3. The man pursued, “If the result of eating only according to the rules of propriety will be death by starvation, while by disregarding those rules we may get food, must they still be observed in such a case ? If according to the rule that he shall go in person to meet his wife a man cannot get married, while by disregarding that rule he may get married, must he still observe the rule in such a case ?

4. Uh-loo was unable to reply to these questions, and the next day he went to Tsow, and told them to Mencius. Mencius said, “What difficulty is there in answer ing these inquiries ?

5. “ If you do not adjust them at their lower ex

tremities, but only put their tops on a level, a piece of wood an inch square may be made to be higher than the pointed peak of a high building.

6. “ Gold is heavier than feathers ;—but does that saying have reference, on the one hand, to a single clasp of gold, and, on the other, to a waggon-load of feathers ?

7. “If you take a case where the eating is of the utmost importance and the observing the rules of propriety is of little importance, and compare the things together, why stop with saying merely that the eating is more important ? So, taking the case where the gratifying the appetite of sex is of the utmost importance and the observing the rules of propriety is of little importance, why stop with merely saying that the gratifying the appetite is the more important?

8. “Go and answer him thus, “If, by twisting your elder brother's arm, and snatching from him what he is eating, you can get food for yourself

, while, if you do not do so, you will not get anything to eat, will you so twist his arm ? If by getting over your neighbour's wall, and dragging away his virgin daughter, you can get a wife, while if you do not do so, you will not be able to get a wife, will you so drag her away ???

II. 1. Keaou of Tsaou asked Mencius, saying, “ It is said, “ All men may be Yaous and Shuns;'-is it so ?” Mencius replied, “ It is.”

2. Keaou went on, “ I have heard that king Wan was ten cubits high, and Tang nine. Now I am nine cubits four inches in height. But I can do nothing but cat my millet. What am I to do to realize that saying ?”

3. Mencius answered him, “ What has this—the question of size—to do with the matter? It all lies simply in acting as such. Here is a man, whose strength was not equal to lift a duckling :-he was then a man of no strength. But to-day he says, “I can lift 3,000 catties' weight, and he is a man of strength. And so, he who can lift the weight which Woo Hwo lifted is just another Woo Hwo. Why should a man make a want of ability the subject of his grief? It is only that he will not do the thing

4. “ To walk slowly, keeping behind his elders, is to perform the part of a younger. To walk quickly and precede his elders, is to violate the duty of a younger brother. Now, is it what a man cannot do—to walk slowly? It is what he does not do. The course of Yaou and Shun was simply that of filial piety and fraternal duty.

5. “Do you wear the clothes of Yaou, repeat the words of Yaou, and do the actions of Yaou, and you will just be a Yaou. And, if you wear the clothes of Kee, repeat the words of Kee, and do the actions of Kee, you will just be a Kee.”

6. Keaou said, “ I shall be having an interview with the prince of Tsow, and can ask him to let me have a house to lodge in. I wish to remain here, and receive instruction at your gate.”

7. Mencius replied, “ The way of truth is like a great road. It is not difficult to know it. The evil is only that men will not seek it. Do you go home and search for it, and you will have abundance of teachers.”

III. 1. Kung-sun Ch‘ow asked about an opinion of the scholar Kaou, saying, “ Kaou observed, “The Seaou Péwan is the ode of a little man. Mencius asked, 5. Why did he say so ?” “ Because of the murmuring which it expresses,” was the reply.

2. Mencius answered, “How stupid was that old Kaou in dealing with the ode! There is a man here, and a native of Yue bends his bow to shoot him. I will advise him not to do so, but speaking calmly and smilingly;—for no other reason but that he is not related to

But if my own brother be bending his bow to


shoot the man, then I will advise him not to do sú, weeping and crying the while ;—for no other reason than that he is related to me. The dissatisfaction expressed in the Seaou Pwan is the working of relative affection, and that affection shows benevolence. Stupid indeed was old Kaou's criticism on the ode.”

3. Chow then said, How is it that there is no dis satisfaction expressed in the K'ae Fung ?”

4. Mencius replied, “ The parent's fault referred to in the K'ae Fung is small; That referred to in the Seaou Péwan is great. Where the parents fault was great, not to have murmured on account of it would have in. creased the want of natural affection. Where the parent's fault was small, to have murmured on account of it would have been to act like water which frets and foams about a stone that interrupts its course. To in crease the want of natural affection would have been unfilial, and to fret and foam in such a manner would also have been unfilial.

5. “ Confucius said, “Shun was indeed perfectly filial! And yet, when he was fifty, he was full of longing desire about his parents.'”

IV. 1. Sung K'ang being about to go to Ts'oo, Mencius met him in Shih-kóew.

2. “Master, where are you going ?” asked Menciùs.

3. Kang replied, “ I have heard that Ts in and Tsoo are fighting together, and I am going to see the king of Tsoo and persuade him to cease hostilities. If he əhall not be pleased with my advice, I shall go to see the king of Ts'in, and persuade him in the same way. Of the two kings I shall surely find that I can succeed with one of them.”

4. Mencius said, “ I will not venture to ask about the particulars, but I should like to hear the scope of your plan. What course will you take to try to persuade them?” K'ang answered, “ I will tell them how un.

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