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presents of friendship.” Mencius replied, “ The feeling of respect.”

2. “How is it,” pursued Chang, “ that the declining a present is accounted disrespectful ?” The answer was, “When one of honourable rank presents a gift, to say in ihe mind, "Was the way in which he got this righteous or not? I must know this before I can receive it;'-this is deemed disrespectful, and therefore presents are not declined.”

3. Wan Chang asked again, “ When one does not take on him in so many express words to refuse the gift, but having declined it in his heart, saying, “It was taken by him unrighteously from the people, and then assigns some other reason for not receiving it ;-is not this a proper course ?Mencius said, “ When the donor offers it on a ground of reason, and his manner of doing so is according to propriety ;-in such a case Confucius would have received it.”

4. Wan Chang said, “ Here now is one who stops and robs people outside the gates of the city. He offers his gift on a ground of reason, and does so in a manner according to propriety ;-would the reception of it so acquired by robbery be proper ?” Mencius replied, “ It would not be proper. In “The Announcement to K'ang' it is said, “When men kill others, and roll over their bodies to take their property, being reckless and fearless of death, among all the people there are none but detest them :'-thus, such characters are to be put to death, without waiting to give them warning. Yin received this rule from Hea, and Chow received it from Yin. It cannot be questioned, and to the present day is clearly acknowledged, How can the gift of a robber be received ?”

5. Chang said, “ The princes of the present day take from their people just as a robber despoils his victim.. Yet if they put a gond face of propriety on their gifts,

then the superior man receives them. I venture to ask how you explain this.” Mencius answered, “ Do you think that, if there should arise a truly imperial sovereign, he would collect the princes of the present day, and put them all to death? Or would he admonish them, and then, on their not changing their ways put them to death ? Indeed, to call every one who takes what does not properly belong to him a robber. is pushing a point of resemblance to the utmost, and insisting on the most refined idea of righteousness. When Confucius was in office in Loo, the people struggled together for the game taken in hunting, and he also did the same. If that struggling for the captured game was proper, how much more may the gifts of the princes be received !”

6. Chang urged, “ Then, are we to suppose that when Confucius held office, it was not with the view to carry his doctrines into practice ?” “It was with that view," Mencius replied, and Chang rejoined, If the practice of his doctrines was his business, what had he to do with that struggling for the captured game ?” Mencius said, “ Confucius first rectified his vessels of sacrifice according to the registers, and did not fill them so rectified with food gathered from every quarter.” “But why did he not go away?” “He wished to make a trial of. carrying his doctrines into practice. When that trial was sufficient to show they could be practised, and they were still not practised, then he went away, and thus it was that he never completed in any State a residence of three years.

7. Confucius took office when he saw that the practice of his doctrines was likely; he took office when his receptior, was proper , he took office when he was supported by the State. In the case of his relation to Ke Hwan, he took office, seeing that the practice of his doctrines was likely. With the duke Ling of Wei he

took office, because his reception was proper. With the duke Heaou of Wei he took office, because he was maintained by the State.”

V. 1. Mencius said, “Office is not sought on account of poverty, yet there are times when one seeks. office on that account. Marriage is not entered into for the sake of being attended to by the wife, yet there are times when one marries on that account.

2. “He who takes office on account of his poverty must decline an honourable situation and occupy a low one; he must decline riches and prefer to be poor.

3. “What office will be in harmony with this declining an honourable situation, and occupying a low one, this declining riches and preferring to be poor ? Such an one as that of guarding the gates, or beating the watchman's stick.

4. “Confucius was once a keeper of stores, and he then said, · My calculations must all be right. That is all I have to care about. He was once in charge of the public fields, and he then said, “The oxen and sheep must be fat and strong, and superior. That is all I have to care about.

5. “When one is in a low situation, to speak of high matters is a crime. When a scholar stands in a prince's .court, and his principles are not carried into practice, it is a shame to him.”

VI. 1. Wan Chang said, “ What is the reason that a scholar does not accept a stated support from a prince?” Mencius replied, “ He does not presume to do so. When a prince loses his State, and then accepts a stated support from another prince, this is in accordance with propriety. But for a scholar to accept such support from any of the princes is not in accordance with propriety.”

2. Wan Chang said, “If the prince send him a present of grain for instance, does he accept it ?” “He

accepts it," answered Mencius. “On what principle of rightness does he accept it?” “Why—the prince ought to assist the people in their necessities.”

3. Chang pursued, “ Why is it that the scholar will thus accept the prince's help, but will not accept his pay ?” The answer was, “ He does not presume to do so.” “I venture to ask why he does not presume to do so.” “Even the keepers of the gates, with their watchmen's sticks, have their regular offices for which they can take their support from the prince. He who without a regular office should receive the pay of the prince must be deemed disrespectful.”

4. Chang asked, “If the prince sends a scholar a present, he accepts it. I do not know whether this present may be constantly repeated.” Mencius answered, “ There was the conduct of the duke Muh to Tsze-sze-He made frequent inquiries after Tsze-sze's health, and sent him frequent presents of cooked meat. Tsze-sze was displeased, and at last having motioned to the messenger to go outside the great door, he bowed his head to the ground with his face to the north, did obeisance twice, and declined the gift, saying, “From this time forth I shall know that the prince supports me as a dog or a horse.' And from that time a servant was no more sent with the presents. When a prince professes to be pleased with a man of talents and virtue, and can neither promote him to office, nor support him in the proper way, can he be said to be pleased with him ?"

5. Chang said, “ I venture to ask how the sovereign of a State, when he wishes to support a superior man, must proceed, that he may be said to do so in the proper way?” Mencius answered, “ At first, the present must be offered with the prince's commission, and the scholar making obeisance twice with his head bowed to the ground will receive it. But after this the store

keeper will continue to send grain, and the master of the kitchen to send meat, presenting it as if without the prince's express commission. Tsze-sze considered that the meat from the prince's caldron, giving him the annoyance of constantly doing obeisance, was not the way to support a superior man.

6. “ There was Yabu's conduct to Shun :-He caused his nine sons to serve him, and gave him his two daughters in marriage; he caused the various officers, oxen and sheep, storehouses and granaries, all to be prepared to support Shun amid the channeled fields, and then he raised him to the most exalted situation. From this we have the expression . The honouring of virtue and talents proper to a king or a duke.”

VII. 1. Wan Chang said, “I venture to ask what principle of righteousness is involved in a scholar's not going to see the princes.” Mencius replied, “ A scholar residing in the city, is called “a minister of the market-place and well,' and one residing in the country is called a “a minister of the grass and plants.' In both cases he is a common man, and it is the rule of propriety that common men, who have not presented the introductory present and become ministers, should not presume to have interviews with the prince.”

2. Wan Chang said, “If a common man is called to perform any service, he goes and performs it;--how is it that a scholar, when the prince, wishing to see him, calls him to his presence, refuses to go ?” Mencius replied, “It is right to go and perform the service; it would not be right to go and see the prince.”

3. “ And,added Mencius, “ on what account is it that the prince wishes to see the scholar ?” “Because of his extensive information, or because of his talents and virtue,” was the reply. “ If because of his extensive information,” said Mencius,“ such a person is a teacher, and the emperor would not call him; how

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