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man goes out, he is sure to come back having partaken plentifully of wine and flesh. I asked with whom he ate and drank, and they are all, it seems, wealthy and honourable people. And yet no people of distinction ever come here. I will spy out where our good man goes. Accordingly, she got up early in the morning, and privately followed wherever her husband went. Throughout the whole city, there was no one who stood or talked with him. At last, he came to those who were sacrificing among the tombs beyond the outer wall on the east, and begged what they had over. Not being satisfied, he looked about, and went to another party :—and this was the way in which he got himself satiated. His wife returned, and informed the concubine, saying, “ It was to our husband that we looked up in hopeful contemplation, with whom our lot is cast for life ;-and now these are his ways !” On this, along with the concubine she reviled their husband, and they wept together in the middle hall. In the mean time the husband, knowing nothing of all this, came in with a jaunty air, carrying himself proudly to his wife and concubine.

2. In view of a superior man, as to the ways by which men seek for riches, honours, gain, and advancement, there are few of their wives and concubines who would not be ashamed and weep together on account of them

BOOK V.

WAN CHANG. PART I. CHAPTER I. 1. Wan Chang asked Mencius, saying, When “ Shun went into the fields, he cried out and wept towards the pitying heavens. Why did he cry out and weep?” Mencius replied, “He was dissatisfied, and full of earnest desire.”

2. Wan Chang said, “ When his parents love him, a son rejoices and forgets them not. When his parents hate him, though they punish him, he does not murmur. Was Shun then murmuring against his parents ?.Mencius answered, “ Ch‘ang Seih asked Kung-ming Kaou, saying, “ As to Shun's going into the fields, I have received your instructions, but I do not know about his weeping and crying out to the pitying heavens and to his parents. Kung-ming Kaou answered him, “You do not understand that matter. Now, Kung-ming Kaou supposed that the heart of the filial son could not be so free of sorrow. Shun would say, 'I exert my strength to cultivate the fields, but I am thereby only discharging my office as a son. What can there be in me that my parents do not love me?'

3. “ The emperor caused his own children, nine sons and two daughters, the various officers, oxen and sheep, storehouses and granaries, all to be prepared, to serve Shun amid the channeled fields. Of the scholars of the empire there were multitudes who flocked to him. The emperor designed that Shun should superintend the empire along with him, and then to transfer it to him entirely. But because his parents were not in accord

with him, he felt like a poor man who has nowhere to turn to.

4. “ To be delighted in by the scholars of the empire, is what men desire, but it was not sufficient to remove the sorrow of Shun. The possession of beauty is what men desire, and Shun had for his wives the two daughters of the emperor, but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. Riches are what men desire, and the empire was the rich property of Shun, but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. Honours are what men desire, and Shun had the dignity of being emperor, but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. The reason why the being the object of men's delight, the possession of beauty, riches, and honours, were not sufficient to remove his sorrow, was that it could be removed only by his getting his parents to be in accord with him.

5. “ The desire of the child is towards his father and mother. When he becomes conscious of the attractions of beauty, his desire is towards young and beautiful women. When he comes to have a wife and children, his desire is towards them. When he obtains office, his desire is towards his sovereign:-if he cannot get the regard of his sovereign, he burns within. But the man of great filial piety, to the end of his life, has his desire towards his parents. In the great Shun I see the case of one whose desire of fifty years was towards them.”

II. 1. Wan Chang asked Mencius, saying, “ It is said in the Book of Poetry,

• In marrying a wife, how ought a man to proceed ?

He must inform his parents. If the rule be indeed as here expressed, no man ought to have illustrated it so well as Shun. How was it that Shun's marriage took place without his informing his parents ?Mencius replied, “If he had informed them. he would not have been able to marry. That male and female should dwell together, is the greatest of human relations. If Shun had informed his parents, he must have made void this greatest of human relations, thereby incurring their resentment. On this account, he did not inform them.”

2. Wan Chang said, “ As to Shun's marrying without informing his parents, I have heard your instructions ; but how was it that the emperor gave him his daughters as wives without informing Shun's parents ?Mencius said, “ The emperor also knew that if he informed them, he could not marry his daughters to him.”

3. Wan Chang said, “ His parents set Shun to repair a granary, to which, the ladder having been removed, Koo-sow set fire. They also made him dig a well. He got out, but they, not knowing that, proceeded to cover him up. Seang said, “ Of the scheme to cover up the city-forming prince the merit is all mine. Let my parents have his oxen and sheep. Let them have his storehouses and granaries. His shield and spear shall be mine. His lute shall be mine. His bow shall be mine. His two wives I shall make attend for me to my bed. Seang then went away into Shun's palace, and there was Shun on his couch playing on his lute. Seang said, “I am come simply because I was thinking anxiously about you. At the same time, he blushed deeply. Shun said to him, “There are all my officers :-do you undertake the government of them for me. I do not know whether Shun was ignorant of Seang's wishing to kill him.” Mencius answered, “How could he be ignorant of that? But when Seang was sorrowful, he was also sorrowful; when Seang was joyful, he was also joyful.”

4. Chang said, “In that case, then, did not Shun rejoice hypocritically ? ” Mencius replied, “No. Formerly, some one sent a present of a live fish to Tszechếan of Ch'ing. Tsze-chéan ordered his pond-keeper to keep it in the pond, but that officer cooked it, and reported the execution of his commission, saying, • When I first let it go, it appeared embarrassed. In a little, it seemed to be somewhat at ease, and then it swam away joyfully. Tsze-chéan observed, “It had got into its element!' The pond-keeper then went out and said, “ Who calls Tsze-ch'an a wise man? After I had cooked and eaten the fish, he says,—It had got into its element! it had got into its element!' Thus a superior man may be imposed on by what seems to be as it ought to be, but he cannot be entrapped by what is contrary to right principle. Seang came in the way in which the love of his elder brother would have made him come; therefore Shun sincerely believed him, and rejoiced. What hypocrisy was there?”

III. Wan Chang said, “ Seang made it his daily business to slay Shun. When Shun was made emperor, how was it that he only banished him ?” Mencius said, “ He raised him to be a prince. Some supposed that it was banishing him.”

2. Wan Chang said, “Shun banished the superintendent of works to Yew-chow; he sent away Hwantaou to the mountain Tséung; he slew the prince of San Meaou in San-wei; and he imprisoned K‘wan on the mountain Yu. When the crimes of those four were thus punished, the whole empire acquiesced :-it was a cutting off of men who were destitute of benevolence. But Seang was of all men the most destitute of benevlence, and Shun raised him to be the prince of Yew-pe; —of what crimes had the people of Yew-pe been guilty? Does a benevolent man really act thus? In the case of other men, he cut them off; in the case of his brother, he raised him to be a prince.” Mencius replied, “ A benevolent man does not lay up anger, nor cherish resentment against his brother, but only regards him

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