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allow their hands to touch in giving and receiving is the general rule; when a sister-in-law is drowning, to rescue her with the hand is a peculiar exigency.”

2. Kwan said “ The whole empire is drowning, How strange it is that you will not rescue it!”

3. Mencius answered, “A drowning empire must be rescued with right principles, as a drowning sister-inlaw has to be rescued with the hand. Do you wish me to rescue the empire with my hand ?”

XVIII. 1. Kung-sun Chéow said, “ Why is it that the superior man does not himself teach his son ?”

2. Mencius replied, “ The circumstances of the case forbid its being done. The teacher must inculcate what is correct. When he inculcates what is correct, and his lessons are not practised he follows them up with being angry. When he follows them up with being angry, then, contrary to what should be, he is offended with his son. At the same time, the pupil says, My master inculcates on me what is correct, and he himself does not proceed in a correct path. The result of this is, that father and son are offended with each other. When father and son come to be offended with each other, the case is evil.

3. “The ancients exchanged sons, and one taught the son of another.

4. “Between father and son, there should be no reproving admonitions to what is good. Such reproofs lead to alienation, and than alienation there is nothing more inauspicious.”

XIX. 1. Mencius said, “ Of services which is the greatest ? The service of parents is the greatest. Of charges which is the greatest ? The charge of one's self is the greatest. That those who do not fail to keep themselves are able to serve their parents is what I have heard. But I have never heard of any, who, having failed to keep themselves, were able notwithstando ing to serve their parents.

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2. “ There are many services, but the service of pa.
rents is the root of all others. There are many
charges, but the charge of one's-self is the root of all

3. “ The philosopher Tsang, in nourishing Tsang
Seih, was always sure to have wine and flesh provided.
And when they were being removed, he would ask re-
spectfully to whom he should give what was left. If
his father asked whether there was any thing left, he
was sure to say, “There is. After the death of Tsang
Seih, when Tsang Yuen came to nourish the philoso-
pher Tsang, he was always sure to have wine and flesh
provided. But when the things were being removed,
he did not ask to whom he should give what was left,
and if his father asked whether there was anything
left, he would answer 'No';-intending to bring them
in again. This was what is called — nourishing the
mouth and body.' We may call the philosopher Tsang's
practice-nourishing the will.'

4. “To serve one's parents as the philosopher Tsang
served his, may be accepted as filial piety.

XX. Mencius said, “It is not enough to remonstrate with a sovereign on account of the mal-employment of ministers, nor to blame errors of government. It is only the great man who can rectify what is wrong in the sovereign's mind. Let the prince be benevolent, and all his acts will be benevolent. Let the prince be righteous, and all his acts will be righteous. Let the prince be correct, and everything will be correct. Once rectify the prince, and the kingdom will be firmly settled.”

XXI. Mencius said, “ There are cases of praise which could not be expected, and of reproach when the parties have been seeking to be perfect.”

XXII. Mencius said, “ Men's being ready with their tongues arises simply from their not having been re proved.”

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XXIII. Mencius said, “The evil of men is that they like to be teachers of others.”

XXIV. 1. The disciple Yo-ching went in the train of Tsze-gaou to Tsée.

2. He came to see Mencius, who said to him, “ Are you also come to see me?” Yo-ching replied, Master, why do you speak such words ?” “How many days have you been here ?” asked Mencius. “I came yesterday.” “ Yesterday! Is it not with reason then that I thus speak ?” “My lodging-house was not arranged.” “ Have you heard that a scholar's lodging-house must be arranged before he visit his elder ?”

3. Yo-ching said, “I have done wrong.”

XXV. Mencius, addressing the disciple Yo-ching, said to him, “ Your coming here in the train of Tszegaou was only because of the food and the drink. I could not have thought that you, having learned the doctrine of the ancients, would have acted with a view to eating and drinking."

XXVI. 1. Mencius said, “ There are three things which are unfilial, and to have no posterity is the greatest of them.

2. “ Shun married, without informing his parents, because of this,-lest he should have no posterity. Superior men consider that his doing so was the same as if he had informed them.”

XXVII. 1. Mencius said. “ The richest fruit of benevolence is this,—the service of one's parents. The richest fruit of righteousness is this,—the obeying one's. elder brothers.

2. “ The richest fruit of wisdom is this, the knowing those two things, and not departing from them. The richest fruit of propriety is this,—the ordering and adorning those two things. The richest fruit of music is this,—the rejoicing in those two things. When thay are rejoiced in, they grow. Growing, how can they oo

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repressed? When they come to this state that they cannot be repressed, then unconsciously the feet begin to dance and the hands to move."

XXVIII. 1. Mencius said, “ Suppose the case of the whole empire turning in great delight to an individual to submit to him.—To regard the whole enr pire thus turning to him in great delight but as a bundle of grass ;-only Shun was capable of this. He considered that if one could not get the hearts of his parents he could not be considered a man, and that if he could not get to an entire accord with his parents, he could not be considered a son.

2. “By Shun’s completely fulfilling everything by which a parent could be served, Koo-sow was brought to find delight in what was good. When Koo-sow was brought to find that delight, the whole empire was transformed. When Koo-Sow was brought to find that delight, all fathers and sons in the empire were established in their respective duties. This is called great filial piety."


CHAPTER I. 1. Mencius said, “ Shun was born in
Jhoo-fung, removed to Foo-hea, and died in Ming.
t'eaou ;-a man near the wild tribes on the east.

2. “King Wan was born in Chow by mount K'e, and died in Peih-ying ;-a man near the wild tribes on the west.

3. “ Those regions were distant from one another more than a thousand le, and the age of the one sago

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was posterior to that of the other more than a thousand years. But when they got their wish, and carried their principles into practice throughout the Middle kingdom, it was like uniting the two halves of a seal.

4. “ When we examine the sages,—both the earlier and the later,—their principles are found to be the same.

II. 1. When Tsze-chéan was chief minister of the State of Ch‘ing, he would convey people across the Tsin and Wei in his own carriage.

2. Mencius said, “ It was kind, but showed that he did not understand the practice of government.

3. “When in the eleventh month of the year the foot-bridges are completed, and the carriagebridges in the twelfth month, the people have not the trouble of wading.

4. “Let a governor conduct his rule on principles of equal justice, and when he goes abroad, he may cause people to be removed out of his path. But how can he convey everybody across the rivers ?

5. “It follows that if a governor will try to please everybody, he will find the days not sufficient for his work.

III. 1. Mencius said to the king Seuen of Tsée, “ When the prince regards his ministers as his hands and feet, his ministers regard their prince as their belly and heart; when he regards them as his dogs and horses, they regard him as any other man ; when he regards them as the ground or as grass, they regard him as a robber and an enemy.”

2. The king said, “ According to the rules of propriety, a minister wears mourning when he has left the service of a prince. How must a prince behave that his old ministers may thus go into mourning ?”.

3. Mencius replied, “ The admonitions of a minister having been followed, and his advice listened to, so that

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