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5. “It is said in the Book of Poetry,
• The descendants of the emperors of the Shang dy.

nasty,
Are in number more than hundreds of thousands,
But, God having passed His decree,
They are all submissive to Chow.
They are submissive to Chow,
Because the decree of Heaven is not unchanging.
The officers of Yin, admirable and alert,
Pour out the libations, and assist in the capital of

Chow. . Confucius said, “ As against so benevolent a sovereign, they could not be deemed a multitude. Thus, if the prince of a State love benevolence, he will have no opponent in all the empire.

6. “Now they wish to have no opponent in all the empire, but they do not seek to attain this by being benevolent. This is like a man laying hold of a heated substance, and not having first wetted his hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry,

“Who can take up a heated substance,

Without wetting his hands ?!" VIII. 1. Mencius said, “ How is it possible to speak with those princes who are not benevolent? Their perils they count safety, their calamities they count profitable, and they have pleasure in the things by which they perish. If it were possible to talk with them who so violate benevolence, how could we have such destruction of kingdoms and ruin of families ? 2. “ There was a boy singing,

.
“When the water of the Tsang-lang is clear,

It does to wash the strings of my cap;
When the water of the Tsang-lang is inuddy,

It does to wash my feet. 3. “ Confucius said, “Hear what he sings, my chil. dren. When clear, then he will wash his cap-strings,

and when muddy, he will wash his feet with it. This different application is brought by the water on itself.

4. “A man must first despise himself, and then others will despise him. A family must first destroy itself, and then others will destroy it. A kingdom must first smite itself, and then others will smite it.

5. “ This is illustrated in the passage of the Tae Kea, "When Heaven sends down calamities, it is still possible to escape them. When we occasion the calamities ourselves, it is not possible any longer to live.”

IX. 1. Mencius said, “ Kee and Chow's losing the empire, arose from their losing the people, and to lose the people means to lose their hearts. There is a way to get the empire :-get the people, and the empire is got. There is a way to get the people :-get their hearts, and the people are got. There is a way to get their hearts :—it is simply to collect for them what they like, and not to lay on them what they dislike.

2. “ The people turn to a benevolent rule as water flows downwards, and as wild beasts fly to the wilderness.

3. “ Accordingly, as the otter aids the deep waters, driving the fish into them, and the hawk aids the thickets, driving the little birds to them, so Kee and Chow aided Tang and Woo, driving the people to them.

4. “If among the present sovereigns of the empire, there were one who loved benevolence, all the other princes would aid him, by driving the people to him. Although he wished not to become emperor, he could not avoid becoming so.

5. “ The case of one of the present princes wishing to become emperor, is like the having to seek mugwort for three years old, to cure a seven years' sickness. If it have not been kept in store, the patient may all his life not get it. If the princes do not set their wills on benevolence, all their days will be in sorrow and dis grace, and they will be involved in death and ruin.

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6. “This is illustrated by what is said in the Book of Poetry,

“How otherwise can you improve the empire ?

You will only with it go to ruin.'” X. 1. Mencius said, “ With those who do violence to themselves it is impossible to speak. With those who throw themselves away, it is impossible to do anything. To disown in his conversation propriety and righteousness, is what we mean by doing violence to one's-self. To say- I am not able to dwell in benevolence or pursue the path of righteousness,' is what we mean by throwing one's-self away.

2. Benevolence is the tranquil habitation of man, and righteousness is his straight path.

3. “ Alas for them, who leave the tranquil dwelling empty, and do not reside in it, and who abandon the right path and do not pursue it!”

XI. Mencius said, “ The path of duty lies in what is near, and men seek for it in what is remote. The work of duty lies in what is easy, and men seek for it in whăt is difficult. If each man would love his parents and show the due respect to his elders, the whole empire would enjoy tranquillity.”

XII. 1. Mencius said, “ When those occupying inferior situations do not obtain the confidence of the sovereign, they cannot succeed in governing the people. There is a way to obtain the confidence of the sovereign :—if one is not trusted by his friends, he will not obtain the confidence of his sovereign. There is a way of being trusted by one's friends :--if one do not serve his parents so as to make them pleased, he will not be trusted by his friends. There is a way to make one's parents pleased ;-if one, on turning his thoughts inwards finds a want of sincerity, he will not give pleasure to his parents. There is a way to the attain. inent of sincerity in one's-self:-if a man do not un

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derstand what is good, he will not attain sincerity in himself.

2. “ Therefore, sincerity is the way of Heaven. To think how to be sincere is the way of man.

3. “ Never has there been one possessed of complete sincerity, who did not move others. Never has there been one who had not sincerity who was able to move others.”

XIII. 1. Mencius said, “ Pih-e, that he might avoid Chow, was dwelling on the coast of the northern sea. When he heard of the rise of king Wan, he roused himself, and said, “Why should I not go and follow him ? I have heard that the chief of the West knows well how to nourish the old. Tae-kung, that he might avoid Chow, was dwelling on the coast of the eastern sea. When he heard of the rise of king Wan, he roused himself, and said, “Why should I not go and follow him ? I have heard that the chief of the West knows well how to nourish the old.

2. “Those two old men were the greatest old men of the empire. When they came to follow king Wan, it was the fathers of the empire coming to follow him. When the fathers of the empire joined him, how could the sons go to any others ?

3. “Were any of the princes to practise the government of king Wan, within seven years, he would be sure to be giving laws to the empire.”

XIV. 1. Mencius said, “ K'ew acted as chief officer to the head of the Ke family, whose evil ways he was unable to change, while he exacted from the people double the grain formerly paid. Confucius said, “He is no disciple of mine. Little children, beat the drum and assail him.

2. “ Looking at the subject from this case, we perceive that when a prince was not practising benevolent government, all his ministers who enriched him were rejected by Confucius :-how much more would he have rejected those who are vehement to fight for their prince! When contentions about territory are the ground on which they fight, they slaughter men, till the fields are filled with them. When some struggle for a city is the ground on which they fight, they slaughter men till the city is filled with them. This is what is called “ leading on the land to devour human flesh. Death is not enough for such a crime.

3. “ Therefore, those who are skilful to fight should suffer the highest punishment. Next to them should be punished those who unite the princes in leagues ; and next to them, those who take in grassy commons, imposing the cultivation of the ground on the people.

XV. 1. Mencius said, “ Of all the parts of a man's body there is none more excellent than the pupil of the eye. The pupil cannot be used to hide a man's wickedness. If within the breast all be correct, the pupil is bright. If within the breast all be not correct, the pupil is dull.

2. “ Listen to a man's words and look at the pupil of his eye. How can a man conceal his character ?

XVI. Mencius said, “ The respectful do not despise others. The economical do not plunder others. The prince who treats men with despite and plunders them, is only afraid that they may not prove obedient to him :-how can he be regarded as respectful or econo mical ? How can respectfulness and economy be made out of tones of the voice, and a smiling manner ?”

XVII. 1. Shun-yu K-wan said, “ Is it the rule that males and females shall not allow their hands to touch in giving or receiving any thing ?” Mencius replied, “ It is the rule.” Köwan asked, “If a man's sister-inlaw be drowning, shall he rescue her with his hand ? " Mencius said, “He who would not so rescue a drowning woman is a wolf. For males and females not to

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