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them, of a like date. He makes very much of his charge against Confucius' insincerity as recorded in Analects 17:20 and this he makes to be but trivial compared with his viola. tion of a promise forced upon him. He thinks his excuso disgraceful indecd. “It was a forced oath. The spirits lo nct hear such.” Dr. Legge asks, “ What shall we say of this,
-his deliberately breaking the oath which he had sworn, simply on the ground that it had been forced upon him ?” Dr. Legge need not give himself so much concern about th.s as affecting Confucius' standing as a man of sincerity. These two incidents make the whole ground of the charge, and all the “natural result of the un-religion of Confucius." He charges a general want of truth among che Chinese to this single case. Whether they are greater liars than Dr. Legge's own nation may not be left entirely for him to decide, but his case is doubtful with Confucius to say the least.
There are several points of doctrine in the works of Confucius that may need a passing notice, though the language of the text is clear enough. He is a consistent theist. He believed in Immortality for man. His aim in this life was perfect virtue. His system of education was superior to that of the Hebrew, or any of the Western nations of that time. Of his theory of morals a striking analogy has been discovered between the so-called Golden Rule of Jesus, “All things whatso. ever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them,” and Confucius' Analects, 15: 23. “ Tsze-kung asked, saying, “Is there one word which may serve as a rule of prautice for all one's life?' The Master said, “Is not RECIPROCITY such a word ? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others;'” and again, 5th chap., “ What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not to do to men.” The same things are stated in the Doctrine of the Mean and the Great Learning.
It has been objected to the Great Learning that it is beyond the reach of ordinary minds, or that it is for rulers or emperors,
and not for ordinary minds. The seven steps may be all taker by any one, even in the humblest aspects of life. They are " the investigation of things; the completion of knowledge ; the sincerity of the thoughts; the rectifying of the heart; the cultivation of the person ; the regulation of the family; and the government of the State.”
The sanctions of religion as taught by the so called ortho dox churches, that is, Heaven and Hell, do not enter the lists of incentives to virtue in Confucius' code, and this perhaps more than aught else, has caused the missionaries to object to bis system of practising virtue for virtue's sake.
CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application ?
2. “Is it not delightful to have friends coming froin distant quarters ?
3. “ Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him ?”
II. 1. The philosopher Yew said, “ They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
2. “The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission !—are they not the root of all benevolent actions ?”
III. The Master said, “ Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.”
IV. The philosopher Tsang said, “I daily examine myself on three points :—whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful ;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;—whether I may have not mastered and practised the instructions of my teacher.”
V. The Master said, “ To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."
VI. The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good When he has time and opportunity, after the perforinance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."
VII. Tsze-hea said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere :-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.”
VIII. 1. The Master said, “If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
2. “Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. 3. “ Have no friends not equal to yourself.
4. “When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.”
IX. The philosopher Tsang said, “Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice ;—then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence.”
X. 1. Tszek'in asked Tsze-kung, saying, “ When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his infor: mation ? or is it given to him ?”
2. “ Tsze-kung said, “ Our Master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant, and thus he gets his information. The Master's mode of asking information !—is it not different from that of other men ?”
XI. The Master said, “ While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial.”
XII. 1. The philosopher Yew said, “ In practising the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them..
2. “ Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done.”
XIII. The philosopher Yew said, “When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters.”
XIV. The Master said, “He who aims to be a man of complete virtue, in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling-place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified :—such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."
XV. 1. Tsze-kung said, “What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud ?” The Master replied, * They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety.”
2. Tsze-kung replied, “ It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'—The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed.”