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left the ducal house, now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced.”
IV. Confucius said, “ There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the upright; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation :—these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs ; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued :—these are injurious.”
V. Confucius said, “ There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends :—these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting :—these are injurious.”
VI. Confucius said, “ There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak;—this is called rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak ;--this is called concealment. They may speak without looking at the countenance of their superior ;-this is called blindness.”
VII. Confucius said, “ There are three things which the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards against sust. When he is strong, and the physical powers are full of vigour, he guards against quarrelsomeness. Wher? he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness.”
VIII. 1. Confucius said, “ There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of IIeven. IIe stands in awe of great men. IIe stands in awe of the words of sages.
2. “ The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."
IX. Confucius said, “ Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn ;—they are the lowest of the people.”
X. Confucius said, “ The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his couutenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanour, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties his anger may involve him in. When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness.”
XI. 1. Confucius said, “ Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil, and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:- I have seeu such men, as I have heard such words.
2. “Living in retirement to study their aims, and practising righteousness to carry out their principles:
-I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men."
XII. 1. The duke King of Ts'e had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Přih-e and Shuh-tsée died of hunger at the foot of the Showyang mountain, and the people, down to the present time, praise them.
2. “Is not that saying illustrated by this ?”
XIII. 1. Ch‘in K'ang asked Pih-yli, saying, “ Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard ?”
2. Pih-yu replied, “ No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying · Not yet,' he added, “If you do not learn the Odes, your will not be fit to converse with. I retired and studied the Odes.
3. “Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hastv steps, and said to me, “ Have you learned the rules of Propriety ?' On my replying Not yet, he added, “If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established. I then retired, and studied the rules of Propriety.
4. “ I have heard only these two things from him.”
5. Ch'in K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, “I asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son.
XIV. The wife of the prince of a State is called by him FOO-JIN. She callis herself SEAOU TÍUNG. The people of the State call her KEUN FOC-Jin, and to the people of other States, they call her kówA SEAOU KEUN. The people of other states also call her KEUN FOO-JIN.
BOOK XVII. YANG HO. CHAPTER I. 1. Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Ho was not at home, went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however, on the way.
Ž. Ho said to Confucius, “ Come, let me speak with you.” He then asked, “ Can he be called benevolent, who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country to confusion ?” Confucius replied, “ No.” “ Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so ?” Confucius again said, “ No." “The days and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us.” Confucius said, “ Right; I will go into office.”
II. The Master said, “By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.”
III. The Master said, “ There are only the wise of the highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed.”
IV. 1. The Master having come to Woo-shing, heard chere the sound of stringed instruments and singing.
2. Well-pleased and smiling, he said, “Why use an ox-knife to kill a fowl ?”
3. Tsze-yew replied, “Formerly, Master, I heard you Aay,— When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men ; when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled.”
4. The Master said, “ My disciples, Yen's words are right. What I said was only in sport.”
V. 1. Kung-shan Fuh-jaou, when he was holding Pe, and in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go.
2. Tsze-loo was displeased, and said, “ Indeed you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Kungshan?"
3. The Master said, “ Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Chow ?”
VI. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, “ To be able to practise five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue.” IIe begged to ask what they were, and was told, “ Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accoinplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.”
VII. 1. Peih Heih inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go.
2. Tsze-loo said, “ Master, formerly I have heard you say, · When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.' Peih Heih is in rebellion, holding possession of Chung-mow; if you go to him, what shall be said ?”
3. The Master said, “ Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said, that, if