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the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death."

XX. The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, U in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others."

XXI. The Master said, u The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partizan."

XXII. The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."

XXIII. Tsze-kung asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not Reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."

XXIV. 1. The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual

2. "This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of straightforwardness."

XXV. The Master said, " Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now, alas! there are no such things."

XXVI. The Master said, " Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans."

XXVII. The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the multitude .like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case."

XXVm. The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man."

XXIX. The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them,—this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults."

XXX. The Master said, a I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole night without sleeping :— occupied with thinking. It was of no use. The better plan is to learn."

XXXI. The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is ploughing;—even in that there is sometimes want. So with learning; — emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him"

XXXII. 1. The Master said, " When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he will lose again.

2. "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him.

3. "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety: — full excellence is not reached."

XXXIII. The Master said, " The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with great concerns, but he may be known in Uttle matters."

XXXIV. The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die from treading the course of virtue."

XXXV. The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his teachei."

XXXVI. The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."

XXXVII. The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondarv consideration."

XXXVIII. The Master said, " There being instruction, there will be no distinction of classes."

XXXIX. The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another."

XL. The Master said, " In language it is simply required that it convey the meaning."

XLI. 1. The Music-master, Meen, having called upon him, when they came to the steps, the Master said, " Herev are the steps." When they came to the mat for the guest to sit upon, he said," Here is the mat." When all were seated, the Master informed him, saying, u So and so is here; so and so is here."

2. The Music-master, Meen, having gone out, Tszechang asked, saying, "Is it the rule to tell those things to the Music-master?"

3. The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind."

BOOK XVI. KE SHE.

Chapter I. 1. The head of the Ke family was going to attack Chuen-yu.

2. Yen Yew and Ke Loo had an interview with Confucius, and said, " Oiir chief, Ke, is going to commence operations against Chuen-yu."

3. Confucius said,:' K'ew, is it not you who are in fault here?

4. * Now, in regard to Chuen-yu, long ago, a former king appointed it to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mung; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connexion with the emperor: — What has your chief to do with attacking it?"

5. Yen Yew said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it."

6. Confucius said, "K'ew, there are the words of Chow Jin,— 'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?'

7. "And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or wild bull escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or gem is injured in its repository:—whose is the fault T

8. Yen Yew said, " But at present, Chuen-yu is strong and near to Pe; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."

9. Confucius said, "K-c\v, the superior man hates that declining to say—' I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for the conduct,

10. "I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the iwojrte hi their several jtlaces. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings,

11. u So it is.—Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.

12. "Now, here are you, Yew and K'ew, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.

13. "And yet he is planning these hostile movements within our state.— I am afraid that the sorrow of the Ke-sun family will not be on account of Chuenyu, but will be found within the screen of their own court."

II. 1. Confucius said, u When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions, proceed from the emperor. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the kingdom, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three genera tions.

2. "When right principles prevail in the empire, government will not be in the hands of the great officers.

3. "When right principles prevail in the empire, there will be no discussions among the common people."

III. Confucius said, "The revenue of the state hag

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