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draught; She-shun examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yu, the manager of Foreign intercourse, then made additions, or subtractions; and, finally, Tszech'an of Tung-le gave it the proper elegance and finish."

X. 1. Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master said, " He was a kind man."

2. He asked about Tsze-se. The Master said, " That man! That man!"

3. He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, " the city of P:een, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Pill family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, till he was toothless, he had only coarse rice to eat."

XI. The Master said, " To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."

XII. The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Chaou and Wei' but he is not fit to be minister to either of the states T-'ang or See."

XIII. 1. Tsze-loo asked what constituted a Complete man. The Master said, "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Woo-chung, the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Peen, and the varied talents of Yen K'ew; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music:—such an one might be reckoned a Complete man."

2. He then added, "But what is the "necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old igreement, however far back it extends :—such a man may be reckoned a Complete man."

XIV. 1. The Master asked Kung-ming Kea about Kung-shuk Wan, saying, "Is it true that your mastei speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"

2. Kung-ming Kea replied, This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth.—My Master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so with him T

XV. The Master said, "Tsang Woo-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Loo to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."

XVI. The Master said, " The duke Wan of Tsin waa crafty and not upright. The duke Hwan of Tswe was upright and not crafty."

XVII. 1. Tsze-loo said, "The duke Hwan caused his brother Kew to be killed, when Shaou Hwuh died with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?"

2. The Master said, " The duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots:—it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"

XVIH. 1. Tsze-kung said, " Kwan Chung, I apprehend, was wanting in virtue, When the duke Hwan caused his brother Kew to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."

2. The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the duke Hwan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole empire. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair dishevelled, and the lappets oi our coats buttoning on the left side.

3. "Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing any thing about them?"

XIX. 1. The officer, Seen, who had been familyminister to Kung-shuh Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.

2. The Master, having heard of it, said,u He deserves to be considered Wan."

XX. 1. The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei, when Ke K'ang said, " Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose his throne?"

2. Confucius said, " The Chung-shuh, Yu, has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Kea has the direction of the army and forces :—with such officers as these, how should he lose his throne?"

XXI. The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his wordy good."

XXII. 1. Ch'in Shing murdered the duke Keen oj Ts'e.

2. Confucius bathed, went to court, and informed the duke Gae, saying, " Ch'in Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."

3. The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."

4. Confucius retired, and said, " Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not tc represent such a matter, and my prince says, 'Inform rhe okiefr af the three families of it.'"

5. He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not. to represent such a matter."

XXIII. Tsze-loo asked how a sovereign should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose on him. and, moreover, withstand him to his face."

XXIV. The Master said, " The progress of the superior man is upwards; The progress of the mean man is downwards."

XXV. The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Nowa-days, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."

XXVI. 1. Keu Pih-yuh sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.

2. Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he, " is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"

XXVII. The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."

XXVIII. The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place."

XXIX. The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exeecds in his actions."

XXX. 1. The Master said, " The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear."

2. Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."

XXXI. Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, "Ts'ze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this"

XXXII. The Master said, " I will not he concerned at menV not knowinir me: I will be concerned at mv own want of ability."

XXXIII. The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily when they occur; is he not a man of superior worth?"

XXXIV. 1. We-shang Mow said to Confucius, K K'ew, how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?"

2. Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate obstinacy."

XXXV. The Master said, " A horse is called a Jcfe, not because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities."

XXXVI. 1. Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?"

2. The Master said, " With what then will you recompense kindness?

3. "Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."

XXXVII. 1. The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."

2. Tsze-kung said, " What do you mean by thus saying—that no one knows you?" The Master replied, u I do not murmer against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;—that knows me!"

XXXVIII. 1. The Kung-pih, Leaou, having slandered Tsze-loo to Ke-sun, Tsze-fuk King-pih informed Confucius of it, saying, " Our master is certainly being

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