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XL The Master said, "' If good men were to govern a county in succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments/ True indeed is this saying!"

XII. The Master said, u If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would still require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."

XIII. The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what difficulty will he have , in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?"

XIV. The disciple Yen returning from the court, the Master said to him, " How are you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The Master said, "It must have been family affairs. If there had been government business, though I am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it."

XV. 1. The duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make a country prosperous. Confucius replied, " Such an effect cannot be expected from one sentence.

2. "There is a saying, however, which people have— lTo be a prince is difficult; to be a minister is not easy.'

3. "If a ruler knows this,—the difficulty of being a prince,—may there not be expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?"

4. The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?" Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be expected from one senteuce. There is, however, the saying which people have—* I have no pleasure in being a prince, only in that no one offer any opposition to what I say!'

5. "If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them? But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be expected from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"

XVI. 1. The duke of She asked about government 2. The Master said, " Good government obtains, when

those who are near are made happy, and those who are far off are attracted."

XVII. Tsze-hea, being governor of Keu-foo, asked about government. The Master said, " Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."

XVIII. 1. The duke of She informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there are those who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a sheep, they will bear witness to the fact."

2. Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this."

XIX. Fan Ch'e asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, " It is, in retirement, to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. Though a man go among rude uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be neglected."

XX. 1. Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called an officer?" The Master said, "He who in his conduct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace his prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer."

2. Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may bo placed in the next lower rank?" and he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow-villagers and neighbours pronounce tc be fraternal."

3. Again the disciple asked, " I venture to ask about the class still next in order." The Master said," They are determined to be sincere in what they say, and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate little men. Yet perhaps they may make the next class."

4. Tsze-kuncj finally inquired, "Of what sort, are those of the present day, who engage in government?" The Master said, " Pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers, not worth being taken into account."

XXI. The Master said, "Since T cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and the cautiously-decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-decided will keep themselves from what is wrong."

XXn. 1. The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying—' A man without constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good!

2. "Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."

3. The Master said, "This arises simply from not prognosticating."

XXIII. The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean is adulatory, but not affable."

XXIV. Tsze-kung asked saying, " What do you say of a man who is loved by all the people of his village?" The Master replied, "We may not for that accord our approval of him." "And what do you say of him who is hated by all the people his village?" The Master said, "' We may not for that conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these cases that the good in the village love him, and the bad hate him."

XXV. The Master said, " The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to please. If you try to please him in .any way which is not accordant with right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."

XXVI. The Master said, " The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease."

XXVII. The Master said, " The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest, are near to virtue."

XXVIII. Tsze-ioo asked saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to be called a scholar?" The Master said, " He must be thus,—earnest, urgent, and bland:—among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland."

XXIX. The Master said, " Let a good man teach the people seven years, and they may then likewise be employed in war."

XXX. The Master said, "To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them away."*

BOOK XIV. HEEN-WA]S[.

Chapter I. Heen asked what was shameful. The Master said," When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of his salary; and, when bad -government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of his salary;—this is shameful."

II. 1. "When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, may this be deemed perfect virtue?"

2. The Master said," This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."

III. The Master said, "The. scholar who cherishes the love of comfort, is not fit to be deemed a scholar."

IV. The Master said, " When good government prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."

V. The Master said, " The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."

VI. Nan-kung Kwoh, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, u E was skilful at archery, and Ngaou could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yu and Tseih personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the empire." The Master made no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwoh went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"

VII. The Master said, a Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, ami, at the same time, virtuous."

VIII. The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object?"

IX. The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, Pe Shin first made the rough

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