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XV. The Master said, “ By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not err from what is right.”

XVI. The Master said, “ The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does the opposite of this.”

XVII. Ke K'ang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, “ To govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct ?”

XVIII. Ke K'ang distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of Confucius about how to do away with them. Confạcius said. “ If you, sir, were not covetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal.”

XIX. Ke K'ang asked Confucius about government, saying, “ What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled ?” Confucius replied, 56 Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors, is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it.”

XX. 1. Tsze-chang asked, “ What must the officer be, who may be said to be distinguished ?”

2. The Master said, “ What is it you call being distinguished ?”

3. Tsze-chang replied, “It is to be heard of through the state, to be heard of through the family.”

4. The Master said, “That is notoriety, not distinction.

5. “Now, the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. He is anxious

to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the country; he will be distinguished in the family.

6. “ As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of in the family.”

XXI. 1. Fan-ch'e rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain-altars, said, “I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to discover delusions.”

2. The Master said, “ Truly a good question!

3. “If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success a secondary consideration ;—is not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail one's own wickedness and not assail that of others;—is not this the way to correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger, to disregard one's own life, and involve that of his parents ; -is not this a case of delusion ?”

XXII. 1. Fan-ch'e asked about benevolence. The Master said, “It is to love all men.” He asked about knowledge. The Master said, “It is to know all men.”

2. Fan Ch'e did not immediately understand these answers.

3. The Master said, “Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked ;-in this way, the crooked can be made to be upright.”

4. Fan Chée retired, and seeing Tsze-hea, he said to him, “ A little ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him about knowledge. He said, “ Employ. the upright, and put aside all the crooked;in this way, the crooked can be made to be upright. What did he

mean?

5. Tsze-hea said, “ Truly rich is his saying! 6. “Shun, being in possession of the empire, selected

from among all the people and employed Kaou-yaou, on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared. Tang being in possession of the empire, selected from among all the people, and employed E-yin, and all who were devoid of virtue disappeared.”

XXIII. Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, “Faithfully admonish your friend, and kindly try to lead him. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself.”

XXIV. The philosopher Tsang said, “ The superior man on literary grounds meets with his friends, and by their friendship helps his virtue.”

BOOK XIII. TSZE-LOO. CHAPTER I. 1. Tsze-loo asked about government The Master said, “Go before the people with your example, and be laborious in their affairs.”

2. He requested further instruction, and was answered, “Be not weary in these things.”

II. 1. Chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the Ke family, asked about government. The Master said, “ Employ first the services of your various officers, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of * virtue and talents.”

2. Chung-kung said, “ How shall I know the men of virtue and talents, so that I may raise them to office?He was answered, “Raise to office those whom you know. As to those whom you do not know, will others neglect them?

III. 1. Tsze-loo said, “ The prince of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done ?"

2. The Master replied, “ What is necessary is to rectify names.”

3. “ So, indeed!” said Tsze-loo. “You are wide of the mark. Why must there be such rectification ?”

4. The Master said, “ How uncultivated you are, Yew! A superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.”

5. “If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.

6. “When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music will not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.

7. “ Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires, is just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect.”

IV. 1. Fan Chóe requested to be taught husbandry. The Master said, “ I am not so good for that as an old husbandman.” He requested also to be taught gardening, and was answered, “ I am not so good for that as an old gardener.”

2. Fan Ch'e having gone out, the Master said, “A small man, indeed, is Fan Seu!”

3. “If a superior love propriety, the people will not dare not to be reverent. If he love righteousness, the people will not dare not to submit to his example. If he love good faith, the people will not dare not to be sincere. Now, when these things obtain, the people from all quarters will come to him, bearing their children on their backs. What need has he of a knowledge of husbandry ?”

V. The Master said, “ Though a man may be able to recite the three hundred odes, yet if, when intrusted with a govermental charge, he knows not how to act, or if, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his replies unassisted, notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what practical use is it?”

VI. The Master said, “When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.”

VII. The Master said, “ The governments of Loo and Wei are brothers.”

VIII. The Master said of King, a scion of the ducal family of Wei, that he knew the economy of a family well. When he began to have means, he said, “Ha! here is a collection !” when they were a little increased, he said, “Ha! this is complete!” when he had become rich, he said, “ Ha! this is admirable!”

IX. 1. When the Master went to Wei, Yen Yew acted as driver of his carriage.

2. The Master observed, “How numerous are the people !”

3. Yew said, “ Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them ?” “ Enrich them,” was the reply.

4. “ And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?” The Master said, “ Teach them.”

X. The Master said, “If there were any of the princes who would employ me, in the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable In three years, the government would be perfected.”

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