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years' time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct.” The Master

5. Turning to Yen Yew, he said, “ Kóew, what are your wishes ?” K'ew replied, “ Suppose a state of sixty or seventy le square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;-in three years' time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that.

6. “ What are your wishes, Ch‘ili,” said the Master next to Kung-se Itwa. Chih replied, “I do not say that my ability extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the Princes with the Emperor, I should like, dressed in the dark squaremade robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."

7. Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Sih, “ Teen, what are your wishes ? ” Teen, pausing as he was playing on his harpsichord, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and rose. “My wishes,” he said,

three gentlemen.” “What barm is there in that ?” said the Master; “ do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes.” Teen then said, “In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all coinplete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the E, enjoy the breeze among the rain-altars, and return home singing.” The Master heaved a sigh and said, “ I give my approval to Teen.”

8. The three others having gone out, Tsang Sih remained behind, and said, “What do you think of the words of these three friends ?” The Master replied, “ They simply told each one his wishes.”

9. Teen pursued, “Master, why did you smile at Yew ?

10. He was answered, “ The management of a state demands the rules of propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him.”

11. Teen again said, “ But was it not a state which Kóew proposed for himself ?” The reply was, “ Yes ; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy le, or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state ?”

12. Once more, Teen inquired, “ And was it not a state which Ch‘ih proposed for himself ?” The Master again replied, Yes; who but princes have to do with ancestral teinples, and audiences with the Emperor ? If Ch‘ih were to be a small assistant in these services, who could be a great one ?”

BOOK XII. YEN YUEN. CHAPTER I. 1. Yen Yuen asked about perfect virtue.. The Master said, “ To subdue one’s-self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from others ?”

2. Yen Yuen said, “I beg to ask the steps of that process.” The Master replied, “ Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety." Yen Yuen then said, “ Though I am deficient in intelli

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gence and vigour, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

II. Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “ It is, when you go abroad, to behare to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others as you would not wishi done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in the country, and none in the family." Chung-kung said, “ Though. I am deficient in intelligence and vigour, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

III. 1. Sze-ma New asked about perfect virtue.

2. The Master said, “ The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech.”

3. “Cautious and slow in his speech !” said New ;“ is this what is meant by perfect virtue ?” The Master said, “ When a man feels the difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking ?”

IV. 1. Sze-ma New asked about the superior man. The Master said, “ The superior man has neither anxiety nor fear."

2. “Being without anxiety or fear!” said New ;does this constitute what we call the superior man ?”.

3. The Master said, “ When internal examination dis covers nothing wrong, what is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?”

V. 1. Sze-ma New, full of anxiety, said,Other inen all have their brothers, I only have not.”.

2. Tsze-hea said to him, “ There is the following saying which I have heard :

3. “Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honours depend upon IIeaven.

4. “Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety :—then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What has the supe.

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rior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers ?”

VI. Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, “ He with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in the fleshi, are successful, may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements are successful, may be called far-seeing.”

VII. 1. Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master said, The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler.”

2. Tsze-kung said, “ If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first ?” “ The military equipment," said the Master.

2. Tsze-kung again asked, “ If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, - which of them should be foregone ?” The Master answered, “ Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of all men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."

VIII. 1. Kih Tsze-shing said, “ in a superior man it is only the substantial qualities that are wanted ;—why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments ?”

2. Tsze-kung said, “ Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue.

3. “Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or leopard stript of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or goat stript of its hair.”

IX. 1. The duke Gae inquired of Yew Jo, saying, 6 The year is one of scarcity, and the returns for ex. penditure are not sufficient; -what is to be done?”

2. Yew Jo replied to him, “Why not simply tithe the people.”

3. “With two tenths,” said the duke, “I find them not enough ;-how could I do with that system of one tenth ?”

4. Yew Jo answered, “ If the people have plenty, their prince will not be left to want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone.”

X. 1. Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, “ IIold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is right;—this is the way to exalt one's virtue.

2. “ You love i man and wish him to live ; you hate him and wish him to die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delusion.

3. “ “ It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to inake a difference.”

XI. 1. The duke King, of Tse, asked Confucius about government.

2. Confucius replied, There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, aud the son is son.”

3. “Goodl!” said the duke; “ if, indeed; the prince be not prince, the minister not minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my reyenue, can I enjoy it ? ”.

XII. 1. The Master said, “ Ah! it is Yew, who could with half a word settle litigations !”

2. Tsze-loo never slept over a promise.

XIH. The Master said, “ In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary, is to cause the people to have no litigations."

XIV. Tsze-chang asked about government. The Master said, “ The art of governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice them with un deviating consistency.”

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