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XXX. 1. The minister of crime of Chéin asked whether the duke Ch'aou knew propriety, and Confucius said, “ He knew propriety."
2. Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Woo-ma Kóe to come forward, and said, “I have heard that the superior man is not a partizan. May the superior man be a partizan also ? The prince married a daughter of the house of Woo, of the same surname with himself, and called her,— The elder lady Tsze of Woo'. If the prince knew propriety, who does not know it?”
3. Woo-ma Kíe reported these remarks, and the Master said, “I am fortunate! If I have any errors, people are sure to know them.”
XXXI. When the Master was in company with a person who was singing, if he sang well, he would make him repeat the song, while he accompanied it with his own voice.
XXXII. The Master said, “ In letters I am perhaps equal to other men, but the character of the superior man, carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have not yet attained to."
XXXIII. The Master said, “ The sage and the man of perfect virtue ;-how dlare I rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me, that I strive to become such without satiety, and teach others without weariness.” Kung-se Hw3, said, “ This is just what we, the (lisciples, cannot imitate you in.”
XXXIV. The Master being very sick, Tsze-loo asked leave to pray for him. He said, “ May such a thing be done?” Tsze-loo replied, “ It may. In the Prayers it is said, 'Prayer has been made to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds.?” The Master said, “ My praying has been for a long time.”
XXXV. The Master said, “ Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate.”
XXXVI. The Master said, “ The superior man is satisfied and composed ; the mean man is always full of distress.”
XXXVII. Tue Master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not fierce; respectful, and yet easy.
BOOK VIII. TAE--PIH.
CHAPTER I. The Master said, “ Tae-pih may be said to have reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined the empire, and the people in ignorance of his motives could not express their approbation of his conduct.”
II. 1. The Master said, “Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety, becoines timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination ; straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes rudeness.
2. “When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness.”
III. The philosopher Tsang being sick, he called to him the disciples of his school, and said, “ Uncover my feet, uncover my hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "We shoull be apprehensive and cautious, as if on the brink of a deep gulf, as if treading on thin ice,' and so have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my es
cape from all injury to my person, 0 ye, my little children.”
IV. 1. The philosopher Tsang being sick, Mang King went to ask how he was.
2. Tsang said to him, “ When a bird is about to die, its notes are mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are goodi.
3. “ There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank should consider specially important: --that in his deportment and manner he keep from violence and heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending to the sacri. ficial vessels, there are the proper officers for them.”
V. The philosopher Tsang said, “ Gifted with ability, ' and yet putting questions to those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting questions to those possessed of little ; having, as though he had not; full, and yet counting himself as empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation:—formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct.”
VI. The philosopher Tsang said, “Suppose that there is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred le, and whom no emergency however great can drive from his principles ;—is such a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed.”
VII. 1. The philosopher Tsang said, “The scholar may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is heavy and his course is long.
2. “ Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain ;—is it not heavy ? Only with death does his course stop ;—is it not long ?”
VIII. 1. The Master said, “ It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused.
2. It is by the Rules of propriety that the character is established.
3. It is from Music that the finish is received."
IX. The Master said, “ The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it.”
X. The Master said, “ the man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme.”
XI. The Master said, “ Though a man have abilities as admirable as those of the duke of Chow, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being looked at.”
XII. The Master said, “ It is not easy to find a man who has learned for three years without coming to be
XIII. l. The Master said, “ With sincere faith he unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.
2. “ Such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a disorganized one. When right principles of government prevail in the empire, he will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed.
3. “When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and honour are things to be ashamed of.”
XIV. The Master said, “He who is not in any par. ticular office, has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."
XV. The Master said, “When the music-master, Che, first entered on his office, the finish with the Kwan Ts'eu was magnificent;-how it filled the ears !”
XVI. The Master said, “ Ardent and yet not upright; stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sin. cere :-such persons I do not understand.”
XVII. The Master said, “Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should lose it.”
XVIII. The Master said, “IIow majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yu held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!”
XIX. 1. The Muster said, “Great indeed was Yaou as a sovereign! Ilow majestic was lie! It is only leaven that is grand, and only Yaou corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue! The people could find no name for it.
2. “ How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished ? How glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!”
XX. 1. Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.
2. King Woo said, “ I have ten able ministers.”
3. Confucius said, “ Is not the saying that talents are lifficult to find, true ? Only when the dynasties of Tang and Yu met, were they more abundant than in this of Chow, yet there was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more than nine men.”
4. “ King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Chow may be said to have reached the highest point indeed.”
XXI. The Master said, “I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards tlie spirits. His ordinary garments were poor but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low mean louse, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water-channeis. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu.”