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nob govern it with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of propriety?"

XIV. The Master said, "A man should say, I am not concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known."

XV. 1. The Master said "Sin, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity. The disciple Tsang replied, "Yes."

2. The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, "What do his words mean?" Tsang said, u The doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others,—this and nothing more."

XVI. The Master said, "The mind of the superior man is conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain."

XVII. The Master said, "When we see men of wOrth, we should think of equalling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves."

XVIII. The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur."

XIX. The Master said, "While his parents are alive, the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place to which he goes."

XX. The Master ^aid, "If the sou for three years does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

XXI. The Master said, "The years of parents may by no means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear."

XXII. The Master said, "The reason why the ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was that they feared lest their actions should not come up to them."

XXIII. The Master said, " The cautious seldom err."

XXIV. The Master said, "The superior man wishes to be slow in his words and earnest in his conduct."

XXV. The Master said, " Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practises it will have neighbours."

XXVI. Tsze-yew said, "In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant."

BOOK V. KUNG-YAY CH'ANG.

Chapter I. 1. The Master said of Kung-yay Ch'ang that he might be wived; although he was put in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. Accordingly, he <mve him his own daughter to wife.

2. Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well governed, he would not be out of office, and if it were ill governed, he would escape punishment and disgrace. He gave him the daughter of his own elder brother to wife.

II. The Master said, of Tsze-tseen, u Of superior virtue indeed is such a man! If there were not virtuous men in Loo, how could this man have acquired this character?"

III. Tsze-kung asked, "What do ycu say of me, Tsze?" The Master said," You are an utensil." "Whal utensil?" "A gemmed sacrificial utensil."

IV'. 1. Some one said, "Yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready with his tongue."

2. The Master said, "What is the good of being ready with the tongue? They who meet men with smartnesses cf speech, for the most part procure themselves hatred. I know not whether he be truly virtuous, but why should he show readiness of the tongue?"

V. The Master was wishing Tseih-teaou K'ae to enter on official employment. He replied, "I am not yet able to rest in the assurance of This." The Master was pleased.

VI. The Master said, "My doctrines make no way. I will get upon a raft, and float about on the sea. He that will accompany me will be Yew, I dare to say." Tsze-loo hearing this was glad, upon which the Master said, "Yew is fonder of daring than I am. He does not exercise his judgment upon matters."

VII. 1. Mang Woo asked about Tsze-loo, whether he was perfectly virtuous. The Master said, " I do not know."

2. He asked again, when the Master replied, "In a kingdom of a thousand chariots, Yew might be employed to manage the military levies, but I do not know whether he be perfectly virtuous."

3. "And what do you say of K'ew?" The Master replied, " In a city of a thousand families, or a house of a hundred chariots, K'ew might be employed as governor, but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."

4. "What do you say of Ch'ih?" The Master replied, " With his sash girt and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed to converse with the visitors and guests, but I do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."

Vm. 1. The Master said to Tsze-kung, "Which do you consider superior, yourself or Hwuy?"

2. Tsze-kung replied, "How dare I compare myself with Hwuy? Hwuy hears one point and knows all about a subject; I hear one point and know a second."

3. The Master said, "You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not equal to him."

IX. 1. Tsae Yu being asleep during the day time, the Master said, "Rotten wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. This Yu !—what is the use of my reproving him?"

2. The Master said, "At first, my way with men was to hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yu that I have learned to make this change."

X. The Master said, "I have not seen a firm and unbending man." Some one replied, "There is Shin Ch'ang." "Ch'ang," said the Master, "is under the influence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?"

XL Tsze-kung said, "What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not to do to men." The Master said, "Tsze, you have not attained to that."

XH. Tsze-kung said, "The Master's personal displays of his principles, and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard."

XIII. When Tsze-loo heard anything, if he had not yet carried it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something else.

XIV. Tsze-kung asked saying, "On what ground did Kung-wan get that title of Wan?" The Master said, "He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors!—On these grounds he has been styled

WAN."

XV. The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics of a superior man :—in his conduct of himself, he was humble; in serving his superiors, he was respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering the people, he was just."

XVI. The Master said, "Gan P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as at first."

XVII. The Master said, "Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on the capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, with representations of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters. Of what sort was his wisdom?"

XVIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked, saying, " The minister Tsze-wan, thrice took office, and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he retired from office, and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new minister of the way in which he had conducted the government;—what do you say of him?" The Master replied, "He was loyal." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"

: 1. Tsze-chang proceeded, "When the officer Ts'uy killed the prince of Ts'e, Ch'in Wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned them and left the country. Coming to another state, he said,' They are here like our great officer, Ts'uy,' and left it. He came to a second state, and with the same observation left it also ;—what do you say of him?" The Master replied, "He was pure." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"

XIX. Ke Wan thought thrice, and then acted

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