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Bhall this be in archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is still the Keun-tsze."

VIII. 1. Tsze-hea asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the passage—' The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for the colours ?'"

2. The Master said, "The business of laying on the colours follows the preparation of the plain ground."

3. "Ceremonies then 'are a subsequent thing." The Master said, "It is Shang who can bring out my meaning! Now I can begin to talk about the odes with him."

IX. The Master said, "I am able to describe the ceremonies of the Hea dynasty, but Ke cannot sufficiently attest my words. I am able to describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. They cannot do so because of the insufficiency of their records and wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in support of my words."

X. The Master said, u At the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of the libation, I have no wish to look on."

XI. Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. The Master said, "I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the empire as to look on this;"—pointing to his palm.

XII. 1. He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were present.

2. The Master said, "I consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice."

XIII. 1. Wang-sun Kea asked, saying, "What ia the meaning of the saying, 'It is better to pay court to the furnace than to the south-west corner?'"

2. The Master said, " Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray."

XIV. The Master said, "Chow had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Chow.'

XV. The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about every thing. Some one said, "Who will say that the son of the man of Tsow knows the rules of propriety. He has entered the grand temple and asks about every thing." The Master heard the remark, and said, "This is a rule of propriety."

XVI. The Master said, u In archery it is not going through the leather which is the principal thing ;—because people's strength is not equal. This was the old way."

XVII. 1. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first day of each month.

2. The Master said, " Tsze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony."

XVIII. The Master said, "The full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery."

XIX. The duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, u A prince should employ his ministers according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness."

XX. The Master said, "The Kwan Ts'eu is expressive of enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."

XXI. The duke Gae asked Tsae Go about the altars of the spirits of the land. Tsae Go replied, "The Hea sovereign used the pine tree; the man of the Yin used the cypress; and the man of the Chow used the chestnut tree, meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe."

2. When the Master heard it, he paid, u Things thai Are done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to blame."

XXII. The Master said, "Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!"

2. Some one said, "Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?" u Kwan," was the reply, "had the San Kioei and his officers performed no double duties; how can he be considered parsimonious?"

3. "Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said, "The princes of states have a screen intercepting the view at their gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of states t)n any friendly meeting between two of them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. Kwan had also such a stand. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety, who does not know them?"

XXIII. The Master instructing the Grand musicmaster of Loo said, " How to play music may be known. At the commencement of the piece, all the parts should sound together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony, severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion."

XXIV. The border-warden at E requested to be introduced to the Master, saying, "When men of superior virtue have come to this, I have never been denied the privilege of seeing them." The followers of the sage introduced him, and when he came out from the interview, he said, " My friends, why are you distressed by your master's loss of office? The empire has long been without the principles of truth and right; Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue."

XXV. The Master said of the Shaou that it was perfectly beautiful and also perfectly good. He said of the Woo that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good.

XXVI. The Master said, " High station filled without indulgent generosity; ceremonies performed without reverence ; mourning conducted without sorrow;— wherewith should I contemplate such ways?"

BOOK IV. LE JIN.

Chapter I. The Master said, u It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighbourhood. If a man in selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?"

II. The Master said, " Those who are without virtue, cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue."

III. The Master said, "It is only the truly virtuous man, who can love, or who can hate, others."

IV. The Master said, "If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness."

V. 1. The Master said, "Riches and honours are what men desire. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be avoided.

2. "If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfil the requirements of that name?

S. u The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act contrary to virtue. In momenta of haste, he cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it,"

VI. 1. The Master said, "I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practise virtue in such a way that he would not allow any thing that is not virtuous to approach his person.

2. "Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.

3. "Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it."

VII. The Master said, u The faults of men are characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a man's faults, it may be known that he is virtuous."

VIII. The Master said, "If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may die in the evening without regret."

IX. The Master said, "A scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with."

X. The Master said, "The superior man, in the world, does not set his mind either for any thing, or against any thing; what is right he will follow."

XI. The Master said, "The superior man thinks oi virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favours which he may receive"

XH. The Master said, " He who acts with a constant view to his own advantage wilt be much murmured against."

XIII. The Master said, "Is a prince able to govern his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he have? If he can

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