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and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things. whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This

is called the perfection of knowledge. VI. 1. What is meant by making the thoughts sincere,” is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad smell, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

2. There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man, he instantly tries to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds him, as if he saw his heart and reins :-of what use is his disguise? This is an instance of the saying“ What truly is within will be manifested without.” Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

3. The disciple Tsang said, “ What ten eyes behold, what ten hands point to, is to be regarded with reverence !”

4. Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must make his thoughts sincere.

The above sixth chapter of commentary explains making the thougnts

sincere. VII. 1. What is meant by, “ The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind,may be thus illustrated :-If a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same, if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

2. When the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we hear and do not understand; we eat and de not know the taste of what we eat.

3. This is what is meant by saying that the cultivaLion of the person depends on the rectifying of the mind,

The above seventh chapter of commentary explains rectifying the mind

and cultivating the person. VIII. 1. What is meant by “ The regulatioz of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person,” is this: -Men are partial where they feel affection and love; partial where they despise and dislike ; partial where they stand in awe and reverence; partial where they feel sorrow and compassion; partial where they are arrogant and rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world, who love, and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love, or who hate, and yet know the excellences of the object of their hatred.

2. Hence it is said, in the common adage, “A man does not know the wickedness of his son; he does not know the richness of his growing corn.”

3. This is what is meant by saying that if the person be not cultivated, a man cannot regulate his family.

The above eighth chapter of commentary explains the cultivating the

person and regulating the family. IX. 1. What is meant by “ In order rightly to govern his State, it is necessary first to regulate his family," is this:–It is not possible for one to teach others, while he cannot teach his own family. Therefore, the ruler, without going beyond his family, completes the lessons for the State. There is filial piety :—therewith the sovereign should be served. There is fraternal submission: —therewith elders and superiors should be served. There is kindness :—therewith the multitude should be treated.

2. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, “ Act as if you were watching over an infant.” If a mother is really anxious about it, though she may not hit exactly the wants of her infant, she will not be far from doing

80. There never has been a girl who learned to bring up a child, that she might afterwards marry.

3. From the loving example of one family, a whole State becomes loving, and from its courtesies, the whole State becomes courteous, while, from the ambition and perverseness of the one man, the whole State may be led to rebellious disorder;—such is the nature of the influence. This verifies the saying, “ Affairs may be ruined by a single sentence; a kingdom may be settled by its one man.”

4. Yaou and Shun led on the empire with benevolence, and the people followed them. Kee and Chow led on the empire with violence, and the people followed them. The orders which these issued were contrary to the practices which they loved, and so the people did not follow them. On this account, the ruler must himself be possessed of the good qualities, and then he may require them in the people. He must not have the bad qualities in himself, and then he may require that they shall not be in the people. Never has there been a man, who, not having reference to his own character and wishes in dealing with others, was able effectually to instruct them.

5. Thus we see how the government of the State depends on the regulation of the family.

6. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ That peach tree, so delicate and elegant! How luxuriant is its foliage ! This girl is going to her husband's house. She will rightly order her household.” Let the household be rightly ordered, and then the people of the State may be taught.

7. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ They can discharge their duties to their elder brothers. They can discharge their duties to their younger brothers.” Let the ruler discharge his duties to his elder and younger brothers, and then he may teach the people of the State.

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8. in the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ In his deportment there is nothing wrong; he rectifies all the people of the State.” Yes, when the ruler, as a father, a son, and a brother, is a model, then the people imitate him.

9. This is what is meant by saying, “ The governInent of his kingdom depends on his regulation of the family.”

The above ninth chapter of commentary explains regulating the family

and governing the kingdom. X. 1. What is meant by “ The making the whole empire peaceful and happy depends on the government of his State,” is this :- When the sovereign behaves to his aged, as the aged should be behaved to, the people become filial; when the sovereign behaves to his elders, as elders should be behaved to, the people learn brotherly submission; when the sovereign treats compassionately the young and helpless, the people do the same.

Thus the ruler has a principle with which, as with a measuring square, he may regulate his conduct.

2. What a man dislikes in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of his inferiors, ; what he dislikes in inferiors, let him not display in the service of his superiors; what he hates in those who are before him, let him not therewith precede those who are behind him ; what he hates in those who are behind him, let him not therewith follow those who are before him; what he hates to receive on the right, let him not bestow on the left; what he hates to receive on the left, let him not bestow on the right:—this is what is called “ The principle, with which, as with a measuring square, to regulate one's conduct.”

3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ How much ta be rejoiced in are these princes, the parents of the people! When a prince loves what the people love, and hates what the people hate, then is he what is called the parent of the people.

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4. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ Lofty is that southern hill, with its rugged masses of rocks! Greatly distinguished are you, O grand-teacher Yin, the people all look up to you.” Rulers of kingdoms may not neglect to be careful. If they deviate to a mean selfish. ness, they will be a disgrace in the empire.

5. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ Before the sov ereigns of the Yin dynasty had lost the hearts of the people, they could appear before God. Take warning from the house of Yin. The great decree is not easily preserved." This shows that, by gaining the people, the kingdom is gained, and, by losing the people, the kingdom is lost.

6. On this account, the ruler will first take pains about his own virtue. Possessing virtue will give him the people. Possessing the people will give him the territory. Possessing the territory will give him its wealth. Possessing the wealth, he will have resources for expenditure.

7. Ťirtue is the root; wealth is the result.

8. If he make the root his secondary object, and the result his primary, he will only wrangle with his people, and teach them rapine.

9. Hence, the accumulation of wealth is the way to scatter the people; and the letting it be scattered among them is the way to collect the people.

10. And hence, the ruler's words going forth contrary to right, will come back to him in the same way, and wealth, gotten by improper ways, will take its departure by the same.

11. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, “ The decree indeed may not always rest on us ;” that is, goodness obtains the decree, and the want of goodness loses it.

12. In the Book of Tsoo, it is said, “ The kingdom of Tséoo does not consider that to be valuable. It val. ues, instead, its good men.”

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