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sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and they are left ignorant of what is essential.—How can they be acknowledged as sufficiently taught ?”

2. Tsze-hea heard of the remark and said, “ Alas! Yen Yew is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which he considers of prime importance, and delivers ? what are there which he considers of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of them ? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the consummation of learning ?

XIII. Isze-hea said, “ The officer, having discharged all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. , The student, liaving completed his learning, should apply himself to be an officer.”

XIV. Tszc-hea said, “ Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that.”

XV. Tsze-hea said, “ My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly. virtuous.”

XVI. The philosopher Tsang said, “ How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practise virtue.”

ŠVII. The philosopher Tsang said, “I heard this from our Master :- Men may not have shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on occasion of mourning for their parents.”

XVIII. The philosopher Tsang said, “ I have heard this from our Master :— The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as seen in his not changing the min. isters of his father, nor his father's mode of govern ment, it is difficult to be attained to.'”

XIX. The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Foo to be chief criminal judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, “ The rulers have failed in their duties, and the people consequently been disorganized, for a long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability.

XX. Tsze-kung said, “ Chow's wickedness was not so great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him.”

XXI. Tsze-kung said, “ The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. IIe has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men look up to him.”

XXII. 1. Kung-sun Chéaou of Wei asked Tsze-kung, saying, “ From whom did Chung-ne get his learning ?”

2. Tsze-kuny replied, “ The doctrines of Wan and Woo have not yet fallen to the earth. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue, remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and Woo. Where could our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them ? And yet what necessity was there for his having a regular master ?”

XXIII. 1. Shuh-sun Woo-shuh observed to the great officers in the court, saying, “ Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-ne.”

2. Tsze-fuh King-pih reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, “Let me use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only reaches 'to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the apartments.

3. “ The wall of my master is several fathorns high. If one do not find ihe door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.

4. “ But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the observation of the chief only what might have been expected ?”

XXIV. Shuh-sun Woo-shuh having spoken reviling. ly of Chung-ne, Tsze-kung said, “ It is of no use doing so. Chung-ne cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are hillocks and mounds, which may be stept over. Chung-ne is the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon ? Ile only shows that he does not know his own capacity.”

XXV. 1. Tsze-k-in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, “You are too modest. How can Chung-ne be said to be superior to you?”

2. Tsze-kung said to him, “ For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.

3. “Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens cannot be gone up to by the steps of a stair.

A. “ Were our Master in the position of the prince of a State or the chief of a Family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage's rule :--he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions ; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glo. rious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him to be attained to?"

BOOK XX. YAOU YUE. CHAPTER I. 1. Yaou said, “Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the Due Mean. If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, your Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end."

2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu.

3. Tang said, “I, the child Le, presume to use a dark-colored victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offences, they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offences, these offences must rest on my person.”

4. Chow conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched,

5. “ Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the one man.”

6. He carefully attended to the weights and meas ures, examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the empire took its course.

7. He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into obscurity,

so that throughout the empire the hearts of the people turned towards him.

8. What he attached chief importance to, were the food of the people, the duties of mourning, and sacri. fices.

9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

II. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, “In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly ?” The Master replied, “ Let him: honour the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, things;—then may he conduct government properly.” Tsze-chang said, “What are meant by the five excellent things ?” The Master said, “When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce.”

2. Tsze-chang said, “ What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure ?” The Master replied, “When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit;—is not this being beneficent without great expenditure ? When he chooses the labours which aro proper, and makes them labour on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he realizes it, who will accuse him of covetousness ? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;—is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride ? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that,

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