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cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Ke family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Ke, and that given to the chief of the Mang family.” He also said, “ I am old; I cannot use his doctrines.” Confucius took his departure.

IV. The people of Tse sent to Loo a present of female musicians, which Ke Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.

V. 1. The madman of Ts'oo, Tsee-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, “Oh Fung! Oh Funa! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."

2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Tsee-yu hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.

VI. 1. Chéang-tseu and Kee-neih were at work in the field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-loo to enquire for the ford.

2. Ch‘ang-tseu said, “ Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?” Tsze-loo told him, “ It is Kóung K-ew." "Is it not Kóung Kóew of Loo ?” asked he. * Yes,” was the reply, to which the other rejoined, “ He knows the ford.”

3. Tsze-loo then enquired of Kee-neih, who said to " him, “ Who are you, Sir?” He answered, “I am Chung Yew.” “Are you not the disciple of Kung K'ew of Loo ?” asked the other. “ I am,” replied he, and then Kee-neih said to him, “ Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will change it for you? Than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world alto

gether?” With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.

4. Tsze-loo went and reported their remarks, when his master observed with a sigh, “ It is impossible to as sociate with birds and beasts, as if they were the sanie with us. If I associate not with these people,—with mankind,—with whom shall I associate ? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.”

VII. 1. Tsze-loo, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying, across his shoulder on a staff, a basket for weeds. Tsze-loo said to him, “ Have you seen my master, Sir!” The old man replied, “ Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain :who is your master ?” With this, he planted his staff in the ground, aud proceeded to weed.

2. Tsze-loo joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.

3. The old man kept Tsze-loo to pass the night in his house, killed a fowī, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.

4. Next day, Tsze-loo went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master said, “He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-loo back to see him again, but, when he got to the place, the old man was gone.

5. Tsze-loo then said to the family, “ Not to take ofsice is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister ? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is aware of that.”

VIII. 1. The men who have retired to privacy from

the world have been Pih-e, Shuh-tsée, Yu-chung, E-yill, Choo-chang, Hwuy of Lew-hea, and Shaou-leen.

2. The Master said, “ Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons; such, I think, were Pih-e and Shuh-tse.

3. “It may be said of Hwuy of Lew-hea, and of Shaou-leen, that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words correspunded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.

4. “It may be said of Yu-chung and E-yih, that, while they hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words, but, in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, anil, in their retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times.

5. “ I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined.”

IX. 1. The grand music-master, Che, went to Tsée. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Tsoo. Leaou, the band-master at the third meal, went to Ts'ae. Keueh, the band-master at the fourth meal, went to Ts-in.

2 Fang-shuh, the drum-master, withdrew to the north of the river. Woo, the master of the hand-drum, withdrew to the Han. Yang, the assistant music-master, and Seang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea."

X. The duke of Chow addressed his son, the duke of Loo, saying, “ The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. IIe does not cause the great ininisters to repitie at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment.”

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XI. To Chow belonged the eight officers, Pih-ta, Pihkwoł, Chung-tuh, Chung-hwuh, Shuh-yay, Shuh-hean Ke-suy, and Ke-kwa.

BOOK XIX. TSZE-CHANG. CHAPTER I. Tsze-chang said, “The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed.”

II. Tsze-chang said, “ When a man holds fast virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes right principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be made of his existence or non-existence ?”

III. The disciples of Tsze-hea asked Tsze-chang about the principles of intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, 6 What does Tsze-hea say on the subject?” They replied, “ Tsze-hea says :- Associate with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so. Tsze-chang observed, “ This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honours the talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue ?—who is there among men whom I will not bear with ? Am I devoid of talents and virtue ?-men will put me away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others ?”

IV. Tsze-hea said, “ Even in inferior studies and employments there is something worth being looked at, but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior man does not practice them.”

V. Tsze-lea said, “ IIe, who from day to day recog. nizes what he has not yet, and from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love to learn."

VI. Tsze-hea said, “ There are learning extensively, and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application —virtue is in such a course.”

VII. Tsze-hea said, “ Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to acomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles.”

VIII. Tsze-hea said, “ The mean man is sure to gloss his faults.”

IX. Tsze-hea said, “The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his language is firm and decided.”

X. Tsze-hea said, “ The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may then impose labours on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his prince, he may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying him.”

XI. Tsze-hea said, “ When a person does not transgress the boundary-line in the great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues.”

XII. 1. Tsze-yew said, “ The disciples and followers of Tsze-hea, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, are

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