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a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fuid without being made black ?

4. “ Am I a bitter gourd ! How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten ?”

VIII. 1. The Master said, “ Yew, have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings ?” Yew replied, “I have not.”

2. “ Sit down, and I will tell them to you.

3. “ There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning ;—the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning ;—the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning ;—the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning ;— the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning ;—the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning;—the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct.”

IX. l. The Master said, “ My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry ?'

2. The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.

3. “ They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.

4. “They teach the art of sociability.

5. “ They show how to regulate feelings of resent ment.

6. “ From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince.

7. " From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants.”

X. The Master said to Pih-yuh, “ Do you give your

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self to the Chow-nan, and the Chaou-nan. The man, who has not studied the Chow-nan and the Chaou-nan, is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so ?

XI. The Master said, “It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say.— It is according to the rules of propriety, they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety? “It is Music, they say. “It is Music,' they say. Are bells and drums all that is meant by Music ?”

XII. The Master said, “ IIe who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean, people ;-yea, is he not like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall ?

XIII. The Master said, “ Your good careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue.”

XIV. The Master said, “ To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is to cast away our virtue."

XV. 1. The Master said, “ There are those mean creatures ! How impossible it is along with them to serve one's prince!

2. “ While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them.

3. “ When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed.”

XVI. 1. The Master said, “ Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are not to be found.

2. “ The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itsell in a disregard of small things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in

quarrelso:ne perverseness. The stupidity of antiquity shoived itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day shows itself in sheer deceit.”

XVII. The Master said, “ Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with virtue.”

XVIII. The Master said, “I hate the manner in which purple takes away the lustre of vermillion. 1 hate the way in which the songs of Ch‘ing confound the music of the Gna. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families.”

XIX. 1. The Master said, “I would prefer not speaking.”

2. Tsze-kung said, “If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples, have to record ?”

3. The Master said, “Does Heaven speak ? The four seasons pursue their courses, and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything ?”

XX. Joo Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the door, he took his harpsichord, and sang to it, in order that Pei might hear him.

XXI. 1. Tsae Go asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that one year was long enough.

2. “If the superior man,” said he, “ abstains for three years from the observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined

3.“ Within a year, the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a complete year, the mourning may stop.”

2. The Master said, “ If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease ?” “I should,” replied Go.

5. The Master said, “ If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during the whole period of mouring, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does nót do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it.”

6. Tsae Go then went out, and the Master said, “ This shows Yu's want of virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years mourning is univer sally observed throughout the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' affection for his parents ?”

XXII. The Master said, “ Hard is the case of him, who will stuff himself with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not gamesters and chessplayers? To be one of these would still be better than doing nothing at all.”

XXIII. Tsze-loo said, “ Does the superior man esteem valour ?” The Master said, “ The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valour without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people, having valour without righteousness, will commit robbery.”

XXIV. 1. Tsze-kung said, “Has the superior mar his hatreds also ?” The Master said, “He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. TIe hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valour merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determincd, aud, at the same time, of contracted understanding.”

2. The Master then inquired, “ Tsze, have you also your hatreds ?” Tsze-kung replied, “I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their

wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."

XXV. The Master said, “ Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you ue familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented.”

XXVI. The Master said, “ When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue - what he

is.

BOOK XVIII. WEI TSZE

CHAPTER I. 1. The viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The viscount of Ke became a slave to Chow. Pe-kan remonstrated with him and died.

2. Confucius said, “ The Yin clynasty possessed these three men of virtue.”

II. Hwuy of Lew-hea being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, “ Is it not yet time for you, Sir, to leave this ?” He replied, “ Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal ? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents ?”

III. The duke King of Tsée, with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, “ ]

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