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are above 2,600 feet in height. To the southward of Dublin is a small range called the Wicklow mountains.
Rivers.--The chief rivers of Ireland are, 1. The Shannon, which rising in the north-west part of the kingdom, runs southerly, spreading out in different places into wide lakes, and then bending southwesterly forms the harbour of the prosperous town of Limerick, and falls into the Atlantic 60 miles lower down in the shape of an estuary, 10 miles over. The course of the Shannon is about 170 miles. 2. The Barrow, rising west from Dublin, flows for about 100 miles to the southward, and falls into the Irish Channel below Waterford, where it forms an excellent harbour. 3. The Liffey, is chiefly remarkable as flowing through the centre of Dublin, where it is navigable for vessels of a moderate size. 4. The Bovne, memorable for the decisive victory gained on its banks over James the Second, which seated William the Third on his throne, flows from west to east, and falls into the sea below Drogheda. 5. The Bann, which falls into and runs out of the great lake Lough Neaglı, holds a northerly course of about 70 miles. 6. The Foyle, waters Londonderry, and then opens into the broad estuary called Lough Foyle.
Lakes.- Ireland possesses a number of considerable lakes, there called Loughs, such as Lough Neagh in the north part of the island, which is 22 miles in length by twelve in breadth. Lough Erne, in the north-west quarter, consists properly of two lakes, connected by an outlet inclosing an island, on which stands the town of Inniskillen : the length of the two lakes together is about 30 miles, and the greatest breadıh is about 10 miles. This lake is beautified by clusters of little isles: but Lough Neagh is one continued expanse of water. In the county of Galway is Lough Corrib, 20 miles long, and from 2 to 5 broad. The most beautiful of the Irish lakes however is the Lough of Killarney,
in the south-west corner of the island, surrounded with picturesque scenery of rock, wood, and mountain.
Mineral Productions.Iron is found in abundance in many parts of Ireland, and some veins are of an excellent quality, and copper is sent over to Wales to be smelted : lead is also met with in very considerable quantities, often intermingled with silver : but the public attention has for some time past been powerfully attracted by the discovery of masses of native gold in a brook in the Wicklow mountains, on the south side of Dublin.
Coal has also been found in various parts of Ireland, particularly in the north; but the beds have not been worked to a proper extent, so that Dublin and many other maritiine towns are chiefly supplied with coal from Wales, Cumberland, and Scotland. Marble, freestone, and slate, are frequent in Ireland; and on the northern extremity of the island is the celebrated Giant's Causey, a prodigious assemblage of basaltic columns, similar t ) those composing the island of Staffa, about 80 miles to the northward on the coast of Scotland. This curious natural production extends above 600 feet into the sea, where it is lost, on a breadth of from 240 to 120 feet, composed of many tlousand pillars, generally in a vertical position, in some places broken off to an equal height, so as to resemble a piece of pavement, whence it has its name: the pillars of various shapes, but commonly pentagonal.
The mineral waters of Ireland, although frequent, have never become very famous, owing probably as much to the caprice of the patients, as to the defectiveness of the waters: the sulphureous springs of Swaling bar, in the county of Cavan, and the chalybeate waters of Ballynahinch, in the north, and Castleconnel, in the south-west, are the most noted.
Animals. In the animal kingdom, Ireland differs not sensibly from England : no poisonous animal, it is asserted, is found in the former country, in which case the viper ought to be a stranger, which is the only poisonous animal in England. The numerous heads of black cattle have already been noticed : and the small race of horses are remarkable for their easy motions. Deer of a gigantic size must in ancient times have abounded in Ireland, for their horns, some not less than 14 feet from tip to top, have often been found deep buried in the bogs. The Irish bound, a large and majestic animal, is now become very scarce : from their being used to scour the country against wolves they aequired the name of the Irish wolf-dog.
Vegetables.-From the early accounts of Ireland it appears that the country was once over-run with forest ; but now these have almost entirely disappeared. The botany of Ireland may be considered as perfectly similar to that of England: but the rich pastures of the former country present various sorts of grass, which are in a great degree peculiar to it. The arbutus unedo, a particular kind of the strawberry free, is one of the natural ornaments of the environs of the lake of Killarncy. The culture of the potatoe is in Ireland carried to such a degree of extent and perfection, as to become the principal article in the food of the great body of the people.
Islands.-These are neither numerous nor considerable. Cape Clear, commonly considered as the southernmost point of Ireland, is in fact the extremity of a small island situated at a short distance from the land. Valentia, and some other isles of little importance, line the coast of Kerry. In the bay of Galway lie the south isles of Arran. Of the coast of Mayo is situated Achill, 12 miles in length by 9 or 10 in breadth. On the northwest point of the kingdom lie the north isles of Arran, a :) Tury, a well known mark for scamei). Rachlin, a small island on the northern part of Antrim, is chiefly remarkable as having been noticed by Piolemy under the name of Ricina,
RELIGION. The protestant reformed religion is by law established in all the British isles, with certain differences relating more to the forms of church-government, and the external rites and ceremonies of divine worship, than to the system of doctrines professed by each communion. In England and Ireland the established system is that peculiarly styled, the Church of England, which at the Reformation retained the hierarchy or episcopal form of government. In Scotland the presbyterian form has been adopted, in which the whole body of the clergy are perfectly equal in rank and dignity, and all ecclesiastical affairs are administered by a gradation of elective and representative assemblies of the pastors and lay-elders.
In England are two archbishops, those of Canterbury and York: under Canterbury are, the bishops of London, Winchester, Litchfield and Coventry, Lincoln, Ely, Salisbury, Exeter, Bath and Wells, Chichester, Norwich, Worcester, Hereford, Rochester, Oxford, Peterborough, Gloucester, Bristol, Landaff, St. David's, St. Asaph, and Bangor : under York are, the bishops of Durham, Carlisle, Chester, and the Isle of Mann, or of Sodor and Mam.
In Ireland are four archbishops, those of Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam : under Armagh are, the bishops of Meath, Kilmore, Dromore, Clogher, Raphoe, Down and Connor, and Derry: under Dublin are, the bishops of Kildare, Leighlin and Ferns, and Ossory : under Cashe are, Waterford and Lismore, Limerick and Ardfert, Killaloe and Kilfenora, Cork and Ross, and Cloyne: under Tuam are, Clonfert and Kilmacduagh, Killalla and Achonry, and Elphin.
In Scotland the parishes are 941, distributed into 78 presbyteries, which compose 15 synods, the whole united in one general assembly held every year at Edinburgh.
Those who dissent from the establishments in Eugland and Scotland, are numerous, and divided into various classes : but in Ireland the dissenters of all descriptions, are by far the most numerous body of the people. By a late calculation those who proless the Roman catholic religion in Ireland, form no less than fourth-fifths of the whole population of the kingdom; and of the remaining fifth the presbyterians alone, who are chiefly found in the north, amount to half a million,
Universities.-In England there are two universities, Oxford and Cambridge; in Scotland four, viz. St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh. Ireland contains but one university, viz. Dublin.
Government. On the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, James the Sixth ot Scotland, succeeding in right of blood to the kingdom of England, the two crowns were united, and so continued until the year 1707, in Queen Ann's reign, when the two kingdoms were united under the name of Great Britain: but Ireland continued a separate state until the 1st January 1801, when the three states were formed into one, styled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The constitution of this great kingdom is a limited monarchy, balanced by two senates or houses of parliament, the one consisting of hereditary peers, the other of representatives chosen by the people.
DENMARK AND NORWAY.
The kingdom of Denmark and Norway, which are only separated by the channel or entrance of the Sound about 70 miles across, are situated between the mouth of the Elbe