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great depth, varying from 0 to 135 fathoms, on which account the surface has seldom, if ever, been known to be frozen.

But it is not to the highlands alone that lakes are confined, for the lowlands present a number of interesting pieces of water, whose beauties are of a different and a milder sort : of such is Loch Leven on the northern borders of Fife, noted for its trout, and for containing the island and its castle, once employed as the prison of the ill-fated Mary, queen of Scots.

It was formerly observed that in Scotland many inlets of the sea, running deep into the land, are known by the name of loch: of these inlets the western coasts furnish many examples, such as Loch Broome, Loch Linny, Loch Fyne, &c. noted stations for the herring fishery.

Mineral Productions. Lead, iron, and coal, are those of the greatest importance now procured in Scotland. The lead mines in the central mountains of the south, hence called the Lead-hills, are considered by mineralogists as the richest in Europe.

Iron is found in great abundance in many parts of the country ; and at Carron in Stirlingshire this ore is smelted, and the metal is converted into a vast variety of shapes, for the accommodation of human life, and also for its destruction ; for at Carron, besides the founding of the ordinary cannon, were first produced those pieces of ordnance, hence called carronades, which being much shorter, lighter, and consequently more manageable than any other sort of the same calibre, are admirably calculated for engagements at short distances, and thus peculiarly adapted for British seamen, who value themselves on running nearer to the enemy, and standing closer to their guns in action, than those of any. other country. The original idea of the construction, uses, and advantages of the carronades, was furnished, many years ago, to the conductors of the works at Carron, by General


Robert Melville : and so useful has this species of ordnance been found in actual service, as now to be adopted in the navy of every nation of Europe.

The most valuable mineral, however, which Scotland furnishes is coal, which has been worked as far back as the 12th century. The great bed in that country stretches across the middle of the kingdom, from west-south-west to eastnorth-east, pervading sundry districts of the counties of Ayr, Lanark, Stirling, the three Lothians, Perth, Fife, &c. of which last county the whole coast along the Firth of Forth, besides many interior tracts, rests upon sirala of excellent coal. This substance has also been discovered in certain parts of Ross and Sutherland.

Granite, free-stone, limestone, marble, slate, &c. are found in abundance in Scotland ; and from that country were drawn the stones with which many of the streets of London are paved.

Mineral waters of various qualities have long been known in Scotland, but either froin their inferior powers, from the influence of fashion, or from some other causes, they have not arrived at great celebrity: those of Peterhead in the north, and of Moffatt in the south, are the most frequented.

Animals.-The animals of Scotland differ little froz those of England, unless we consider the small horses of Galloway and the still smaller race of the Shetland isles, as peculiar to those parts of the country. Vast droves of cattle are annually brought from the bighland districts to be fata tened in the English pastures, when they furnish the most delicate provision for the table. The sheep are geverally of a small breed; but like the Welch and the South Down sheep, they afford excellent mutton. The roe is still foc. quently seen in the mountains; but no wolf has been dise covered for above these hundred years.

The numbers and varieties of sea-fowl which frequent, and in many places literally cover the rocky shores, aie TOL, II.


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prodigions : but the greatest treasures of the animal world in Scotland, are the multitudes of fish with which its seas are filled. The whale frequently appears, and the basking shark often shows himself in the western bays. The herring presents itself in vast abundance, all along both the castern and western shores; and the salmon is so plentiful in the rivers, that the exportation to England and other countries, forms a very considerable article of commerce. Pçarls are also found in a species of mussel, in several of the Scotch rivers and lakes.

Vegetables. The lowlands of Scotland in their vegetable productions, differ little from England; but in the mountainous tracts of the highlands, many plants are found which only in the Alps, and other elevated regions, are met with. In the highlands also are vast natural forests of pine and birch; and plantations of various sorts of timber have, for many years past, been carried on by a number of great proprietors, to an extent of which it is difficult to form 2 conception.


The Island of Britain possesses a multitude of smaller isles, scattered along its shores, particularly on the west and north parts. Holy island and Coquet lie under the shores of Northumberland. Thanet in Kent was once an island separated from the mainland by a navigable channel, on which at Richborough the Rhutupie of the Romans, was a principal station for ships,

Wight. On the coast of Hampshire lies the Isle of Wight, rich and beautiful ; about 20 miles long by 12 miles broad. Portland. The isle of Purbeck is properly a peninsula ;


but the vast mass of stone composing the isle of Portland, has evidently been surrounded by the sea.

Scilly.--About 26 miles west from the extremity of Cornwall, lie the isles of Scilly or Silley, a cluster of low socks and islands, of which the largest, St. Mary's, is about S miles in circuit. The whole population of these isles is about 1000 persons.

Anglesey.--A number of small isles line the shores of Wales; but Anglesey at the north-west corner is a considerable and fruitful island, being 25 miles long, and 18 broad; the chief town is Beaumaris. This island is the Mona mentioned in Tacitus' life of Agricola, and is now remarkable for its invaluable copper mine, in the Parys mountain already mentioned: from Holy-head on the most advanced point is the established passage from England to Dublin.

Mann-In the midst of the Irish sea, at nearly equal distances from England, Scotland, and Ireland, lies the isle of Mann, the Monæda and Menavia of the Romans : its length from north to south is about 30 miles, and its greatest breadth about 15 miles. The island is in general hilly, Mount Snafel in the middle rising to the height of 1,640 feet. It produces lead, copper, and iron, with limestone and slate, and contains about 40,000 inhabitants, members of the church of England, under their own bishop, who al. though within the province of the archbishop of York, has no seat in the British bouse of Peers.

This island formerly had kings of its own, and it remained in many respects independent on Britain down to the year 1765, when government purchased the sovereignty of the proprietor, the duke of Athol.

The interior of Mann is in general bleak and unproductive, but the shores and vales afford good pasture and corn. The principal towns arę Douglas, Castlciowit, and Ramsay.



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HEBUDES, -The whole western coast of Scotland is covered with a range of islands, some of them oi considera able size, called in general from their situation with respect to that country, the western islands : but they are mentioned by Pliny, Solinus, and Prolemy, by the name of Hebudes, or Ebudæ, terms' which for some time past have been free quently but absurdly corrupted into Hebrides.

Arran.-Two islands lying in the entrance of the Firth of Ciyuc, are, however, not reckoned amongst the Ilebudes : these are Arran and Bute. Arran is a mountainous island 23 miles in length and 9 in breadth, containing about 7,000 inhabitants.

Bute.-Bute is in length 12 miles and in breadth 4 miles : the inhabitants about 4800 : the chief town 'is Rothsay, which gives the title of duke to the Prince of Wales.

Ilary. Proceeding from south to north, the principal islands of the Hebudes are,'Ilay, 24 miles long by 18 in breadth; the inhabitants 12,000. This island produces some copper and lead, and exporis great numbers of cattle.

Jura.--This island is 20 miles in length, by 5 in breadth, extremely mountainous and ragged, the highest of the singular conical summits, called the Paps, rising 3,400 feet above the sea; the inhabitants about 1200. On the north end of this island is situated the dangerous whirlpool called Corry Vrecan, which, according to the state of the tide, Oxiends its fury for above a mile in diameter.

Null.--Mull, lying close to the continent of Scotland, is one of the largest of the Hebudes, being 28 miles in length, and is in breadth, containing above 8,000 inhabitants.

lona.--Adjoining to the south-west corner of Mull, is Jons, or Y-columb-kil, so early as in the sixth eentury the Seit of religion and literature,


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