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the Apalachian mountains, running parallel to the eastern shore, rising probably in no part to the height of 7,000 feet.

A peculiar feature of N. America is the number and magnitude of the lakes, with which great part of the interior is covered in a chain extending from N. W. to S. E. Beginning at the S. E. extremity of the chain, these lakes are Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, Superior, Winipec, Slave lake, &c. Lake Superior is not less than 350 miles in length, and 120 miles in its greatest breadth. The grealer part of the shores is rocky and uneven; and the water is fresh and transparent: the principal fish are trout and sturgeon. It is remarkable that these lakes are never intersupted by ice, although the rivers to which they give rise are regularly frozen over in winter.

The rivers of N. America, are upon a large scale : that of St. Laurence, which serves to carry off the superabundant waters of lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, flows in a north-westerly direction for 750 miles, being go miles broad at the discharge into the Atlantic, and navigable for ships of the line as high as Quebec, 400 miles up from the sea, where its channel is about five miles in breadth.

The river Mississippi, rising in the heart of the country, about lat. 47°, Aows in general southerly to the Gulf of Mexico, in lat. 29°, a distance of 1,100 miles in a straight line, although by its windings the course really exceeds 1,400: but about towards the middle of its progress it receives on the west side, or rather it falls into another, the Missouri, a stream broader and deeper than itself, and of a much longer course, rising 2,500 miles N. W. from the junction. The mountainous tracts which send forth the Missouri, will doubtless, when the country comes to be better known, be found much more elevated above the sea than any other within the limits of N. America.


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The Ohio, a gentle, transparent, and beautiful stream, falls into the Mississippi on the east side, after a winding course of about 1,200 miles.

The short river Niagara, discharging the waters of lake Erie into lake Ontario, presents one of the most remarkable cascades or falls on the face of the globe. This river issues on a breadth of 300 yards, and deep enough for vessels drawing nine or ten feet of water; but the current is so rapid and irregular, that only large boats (or Batteaux, as they are termed in the country) can venture to navigate it. Three miles above the falls, the stream begins to hurry down a rugged channel, utterly impassable, until at last, arriving at the brink of a precipice, it throws itself headlong to the bottom. The river does not however fall in one continued sheet of water, being divided by islands into three separate cascades. The most stupendous of these is that on the N. W. or Canadian side, called from its size, the Great, and from its form, the Horse-shoe fall: the height of this fall is about 142 feet, whereas the two others are each 160 feet in height. The breadth of this great fall is conjectured to be 600 yards; that of the island adjoining is 350 yards ; the middle fall is only about 5 yards wide; the next island about 30; and the fall on the S. E. side is supposed to be about 350 yards in breadth : making the whole extent across the falls and islands, about 1,335 yards, or three quarters of an English mile. The body of water thrown over this tremendous precipice has been calculated to amount to above 670,000 tons in one minute.

BRITISH POSSESSIONS.-Of these, the first is order and importance, is Canada, lately divided into two provinces or governments, entitled from their local position, Lower and Upper Canada.

Lower Canada extends along the north bank of the river St. Lawrence, from its mouth to a point midway, between the town of Montreal and Lake Ontario, where begins the



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boundary with Upper Canada, which runs in general north. erly along a chain of small rivers and lakes to the bottom of Hudson's Bay.

The principal town of Lower Canada is Quebec, situated on a lofty promontary on the north side of the St. Law. rence: it is divided into two towns, the upper

seated Aat summit of a rock, át a great height above the river, and is well fortified: the lower town is confined between the bottom of this rock and the river, and is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in trade and the navigation of the river. The inhabitants of both are reckoned at 10,000, of whom Iwo thirds are the descendants of the original French setulers.

Montreal stands on the southern side of a considerable island formed by the rivers St. Lawrence and Utawas, about 150 miles above Quebec: and so far can vessels of 400 tons ascend in favourable states of the river, Montreal contains about 6,000 inhabitants, who carry on a considerable trade in furs, that place being the principal station of what is called the North West Company,

The chief town of Upper Canada is York, situated in N. Lat. 43o. 35. on the north side of lake Ontario, having an excellent harbour formed by a long neck of land. It is the seat of the government, and stands in a distriet promising to become in a few years a very valuable country. At the lower extremity of the same lake, where the river St. Lawrence begins, stands the town of Kingston, with a fort, carrying on a considerable share of the fur-trade.

The country of the Canadas is in general mountainous and woody, with many open plains and swamps, particularly in the upper province. Amongst the trees the maple is found, from which a sort of sugar' is made for home consumption. The most remarkable animals are the beaver ; of whose VOL. II. 2 c

sagacity sagacity in the construction of his hut, and the general tenor of his life, so much has been said: it is now, however, asserted, that he never tastes fish or any other animal food, living entirely on the roots, leaves, and bark of certain shrubs and trees which have no resinous juice. The moose-deer, or wapiti, is a variety of the European elk : it is a beautiful and stately animal, alied to, but much larger than, the common stag. In the northern parts the rein-deer and the lynx are not uncommon, and rattlesnakes are extremely numerous. The delicate humming-bird has occasionally been found in Canada, as also at the opposite point of South-America.

Little has hitherto been done to ascertain the mineral treasures of this widely extended district; lead and copper are, however, said to be met with in different parts.

New Brunswick.-Along the S. E. bank of the river St. Lawrence lies the extensive province of New Brunswick, erected, in 1784, into a separate government, independent of that of Nova Scotia. In it is the considerable river of St. John, navigable for small vessels sixty miles up from the sea, and abounding in salmon, sturgeon, and other fish.

Frederick-town, the capital, lies on St. Johns's river, about ninety miles up from the sea. The principal productions of this country are cattle, timber, and fish.

Nova-Scotia.—This country is entirely enclosed by the sea, cxcepting at the isthmus on the north-west, where it is joined to New-Brunswick. Its length is about 300 miles, and the breadth about 80. The capital, Halifax, is scated on the western shore of a noble bay or harbour, being the most populous town in British America. On the west side of the province is Annapolis, a small town, with an excellent harbour.

The climate of this country during the long winter is very severe, and even the summer is foggy and damp, but it is not unhealthy. The face of the province is hilly, and better calculated for pasturage than agriculture : the forests and fisheries are the chief advantages it affords.

The bay of Fundy, separating Nova-Scotia from New Brunswick, is noted for the prodigions swell of the tide, which runs to various heights, between forty-five and sixty feet.

Prince Edward Island.-Parallel to the northern coast of Nova Scotia, and at the distance of ten or twelve miles, lies Prince Edward island, formerly called St. John's. The face of the country consists of gentle swellings, much intersected by many streams, forming a number of convenient harbours. The soil is fertile, and the climate is much more agreeable and healthy than that of any of the neighbouring countries. Charlotte-town is the principal place in the island.

Cape Brelon.—This island is separated from the N. E. corner of Nova Scotia by a channel only a mile in breadth. The chief place is Louisburg, with a harbour on the east side of the island. The climate is cold and foggy, the soil poor and unfit for agriculture. Besides a very valuable fishery on its coasts, the island affords some furs; and an extensive mine of coal has been worked for many years past.

Newfoundland.—This great island situated between 46°. 40'. and 51°. 30'. of N. lat. is of a triangular form, each side being above 300 miles in extent. The interior has never been examined, but along the shores it consists of a quick succession of rocky hills and lakes: many of the hills produce birch, and small pines and firs. The principal settlement is at St. John, with a barbour on the S. E. corner of the island : other places are Placentia on the S. and Bonavista on the E. sides.

From its situation, in the midst of a region covered with continual fogs, Newfoundland is quite unfit for the production of corn: but on its shores, and particularly on the 2 C2


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