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principal contributors to the waters of the - Po, which pervades the vast plains of Lombardy. The Aar, the Reuss, the Limmat, and many other considerable streams crossing Switzerland from south to north, enrich and adorn the country, and pour themselves into the Rhine, while the Rhone is indebted to none but a few temporary mountaintorrents for its stores.

Lakes.-The numberless rills and streams that rush down from the springs, rains, and melting snows, in the mountains, assemble at their feet, and fill the bottoms with water, forming lakes of great variety, in magnitude and beauty. In these lakes the earth, stones, trees, &c. burried down by the torrents are deposited, and nothing but the pure element passes over at the lower end of the lakes, whence the Swiss rivers are distinguished for their crystal. waves. To describe the lakes of Switzerland, would far exceed the bounds of this tract; the principal only can therefore be noticed. The lake of Geneva, otherwise called the lake of Lausanne, and now, by a revival of its ancient name, Lake Leman, is formed by the Rhone, and extends, in the shape of a bow, for about 50 geographic miles to Geneva, through the midst of which the Rhone again pursues its : rapid course. The greatest breadth in the middle is about 12 miles, and its greatest depth 170 fathoms. Nothing can surpass the magnificence of the country by which this lake is, inclosed; the lofty northern slopes, rich in corn and wine, and covered with towns, villages, farms, and country seats; towards the west and the south, the shores are low, fertile, and populeus; but the eastern part is loaded with prodigious mountains, impending in many parts over the waters of the lake, so as to leave but a narrow, horse-track along their base : of late, how. ever, great exertions have been made by the French armies, to scoop out a road practicable for carriages and troops, to communicate with the pass of Simplon, in the Alps, lead

ing ing down into the Milanese in Italy. The only defect in the scenery of the lake of Geneva, is the total want of islands. The lake of Constance is a noble expanse of water, narrowed so much towards the west end, by projections of the land, as to be crossed by a bridge at the town of that name

The upper and greater portion of the lake is in length about 37 miles, and in its greatest breadth about 15 : the lower portion is of much smaller dimensions. It contains several little inhabited islands, on one of which, near the upper end, stands the town of Lindaw. The banks of this lake are in general level and fertile, excepting at the head, where the Rhine breaks out from the mountains. The lake of Zurich is a beautiful crescent, about 25 miles long, by 3 broad, out of which flows the Limmat, through the middle of the town. Lucern is seated at the point where the Reuss issues from alake presenting, in its various winding shores and recesses, scenes which even in Switzerland are distinguished for boldness and picturesque effect. The lakes of Neufchatel and Bienne, at the foot of Mount Jura, are highly beautiful, but less grand and romantic.

Mineral productions.-Gold particles have been found in the beds of the rivers, and some silver, copper, and lead, have been discovered by mining : but the chief mineral treasure in Switzerland, is the fossile salt drawn from mines in the neighbourhood of Bex and Aigle, near the entrance of the Rhone into the lake of Geneva, which have long produced a considerable income to the canton of Berne, within which they are situated. Rock-crystal is found in the Alps in great quantities, and often in pieces of prodigious bulk. Mineral springs of various properties are found in several quarters of the country: the hot sulphurous 'waters of Baden, (the German word for a bath,) ten miles below Zurich, on the Limmat, are much frequented, and were celebrated in the time of the Romans, to whom they were known by the name of Aquæ Helvetica. The warm


baths of Leuk, in the Valais, are likewise much resorted to, for health and for amusement.

Animals.-Switzerland produces horses capable of ún. dergoing great fatigue, and herds of excellent cattle. The rock goat, called in the

called in the German dialect the Steinbock, a name senselessly softened by the French into bouquetin, and affectedly adopted by some English writers; the chamois, the brown bear, the marmot, the vulture, are amongst the rarest animals of the country.

Vegetable productions.---Although Switzerland presents no tracts of forest to be compared with those of Germany, Poland, and Russia ; yet the slopes of many of the mountains are clothed with woods, consisting chiefly of fir, larch, and pine; and water-saw-mills are to be seen in many places, to supply the inhabitants with plank and deal, for numberless purposes, the houses, in many districts, being entirely constructed of timber. From the elevation of the mountains, Switzerland possesses, in the different regions, plants the growth of the south of France, and of the north of Sweden; so that, excepting such as are natives of low marsby countries, the botanist may there discover a greater variety of vegetable productions than in any other tract of Europe, of much wider extent.

Religion and government.-'1 he established religious profession is different in the different cantons or provinces of Switzerland. Those of Lucern, Uri, Schweitz, Unterwald, Friburg, Soleure, and Zug, are Roman catholic, whilst those of Zurich, Bern, Basil, and Schaffhausen, are calvinistic-protestant. In the cantons of Glarus and Ap. penzel, both professions are established. Of the other states in the country, allies of the thirteen cantons, the Grisons are for the greater part calvinists, while in the Valaip the inhabitants are now, generally, catholics: and the prince-abbot of St. Gall formerly ruled over a district of VOL. 11,


which all the inhabitants are catholics, excepting those of the industrious town of that name, who are protestants, and independent on his authority.

By the constitution imposed by France on Switzerland in 1803, the country is now divided into the following nineteen cantons, arranged in the order of their population; viz, Bern, Zurich, Vaud, St. Gall, Argaw, Grisons, Tesino, Lucern, Turgaw, Friburg, Appenzel, Soleure, Basil, Schweitz, Glarus, Schaffhausen, Unterwald, Zug, and Uri. Of these cantons, the six first named, as being the tnost populous, send each two deputies, and each of the others, one deputy, to form the general diet, which meets yearly in the month of June, under a president or Landamman: but each canton is governed by its own peculiar councils and laws independent of the others.



Situation and extent.- Portugal is situated between the parallels of 37o and 42°, of north latitude, being in length 300 geographic, or 350 English miles; but the breadth varies from 60 to 120 geographic, or 70 to 140 English miles : on the west and south, it is washed by the Atlantic, and on the north and east an imaginary line separates it from Spain.

Population. The number of inhabitants in Portugal has been variously estimated from 1,800,000 to 2,300,000, the first indicating a population of 67, and the second of 80, to one square mile: no high rate for a country enjoying so many natural advantages.


Lisbon, the capital, is finely situated on' very uneven ground, on the north bank of the Tagus; which there spreading into a broad estuary, furnishes a capacious, safe, and much frequented haven. The town owes its principal improvements to the dreadful disasters produced by the memorable earthquake of 1755 : the population is supposed to amount to 200,000. Oporto, whence is drawn the well known Port wine, is a considerable town of 30,000 inhabitants, seated on sloping ground on the north side of the Douro, about five miles above its mouth. Another harbour much frequented by foreigners is Setuval, commonly, but absurdly, called St. Ubes, the ancient name being Cetobriga: the town contains 12,000 inhabitants, engaged in the exportation of salt and other productions. Coimbra is a celebrated university; and Elvas is regarded as one of the keys of Portugal, on the Spanish frontiers.

Climate and soil.-Portugal enjoys a happy temperature, and the air of Lisbon has long been recommended for the restoration of consumptive, gouty, and other invalids from northern climates.

The face of the country is conveniently varied by hill and plain, and the soil would, if common industry were bestowed on it, be very productive ; but agriculture is both ill understood and generally neglected.

Mountains. Of these, there are in Portugal none of very noticeable elevations, although the whole frontier of Spain be carried across a very uneven tract. The range of Estrella, supposed to be the Mons Herminius, mentioned in the most ancient history of the country, extends from the Spanish borders in a south-west direction to the sea coast on the north of Lisbon.

Rivers and lakes. The Tagus, which forms the haven of Lisbon ; the Douro, which washes the walls of Oporto; the Guadiana, which, before it falls into the sea, forms for some time the boundary with Spain ; and the Minho, (pronounced



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