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for only a short distance, before its junction with the Danube, on the borders of Bavaria.

Lakes. In these countries are many lakes, particularly in the western parts of Hungary, where that named the Platten Sea extends above 40 miles in length by 8 in breadth. In Carniola is the celebrated lakeof Zirkuitz, properly Zchernilz, about 8 miles in length by 4 in breath. In the beginning of summer the waters of this lake disappear through a number of openings in the bottom, which is covered with dry and rich herbage, until in September the waters return, spouting up with great force, from which circumstance the lake has its name, which, in the Slavonian language, signifies a fountain; and bringing great numbers of fish, many of which are left on the ground when the lake is again emptied in the ensuing summer.

Mineral productions..The Austrian dominions are singularly rich in minerals : silver, a little gold, and tin, with lead, iron, sulphur, quicksilver, are found in Bohemia: Stiria furnishes excellent iron, lead, and coal: the iron mines of Carinthia are well-known, and the mines of Idria in Car. niola have produced above 130 tons of mercury in one year. Hungary presents the rich gold mines of Cremnitz, with the silver mines of Shemnitz ; and gold is found in abundance in the provinces of Transylvania and the Bannat. The salt mines in the ncighbourhood of Cracow have been already noticed in speaking of Poland. The Austrian dominions also abound in mineral waters, of which those of Baden in Austria, and Carlsbad in Bohemia, are the most celebrated.

Animal and vegetable productions.--In addition to the animals common to the middle regions of Europe, these countries present the bison, bear, wild bear, wolf, and a species of beaver : the bustard and the pelican are not unknown. The horses of Hungary have long been renowned; but in fact that spirited race are not natives of that country, but drawn from other districts for the use of

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the army and the nobles. The sheep commonly resemble the Wallachian, remarkable for their erect twisted horns and long shaggy fleece. Forests are found in many dis- . tricts, particularly in the late acquisitions from Poland. Besides abundance of various sorts of grain, hops, flax, and saffron, are produced ; and among the wines of Europe, those of Tokay, the growth of the banks of the Teiss, in Hungary, hold a pre-eminent station.

Religion and government.--The prevalent religious system of the Austrian dominions is the Roman Catholic; but Protestants of different classes are very numerous in the various districts; in Hungary, particularly, they are reck. oned to be equal in number to those of the church of Rome. The different portions of these states enjoy different privileges, Bohemia and Hungary being kingdoms, Austria an archduchy, &c: but since the assumption by the head of the House of Austria of the title of Emperor, the whole may be considered as forming an hereditary monarchy, limited, however, particularly in Hungary, by the authority of the assemblies of the states.

X.

FRANCE.

Situation and extent.-France, in its present enlarged form, is bounded on the north by a line still undefined from the Rhine to the mouth of the Scheld, the limit with the Dutch territory, by the German ocean and the English channel; on the west by the bay of Biscay; on the south by the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean; and on the east by the Alps, Mount Jura and the Rhine. In this state, besides the old kingdom, France comprehends the county of VOL. II.

Nice, Nice, Savoy, the territory of Geneva, the Austrian Netherlands, and many other districts on the west side of the Rhine, formerly subjected to various sovereigns, ecclesiastic and civil. This great tract of country is situated between 42° 20' and 51° 30' of N. lat. and between 5° W. and go 30' of E. long. from Greenwich, The extent from the ea-t end of the Pyrenees to the Dutch frontier, is about 550 geographic or 640 English miles, and that from the westem extremity near Brest, to Strasburgh on the Rhine, is about 480 geographic or 560 English miles; the medium breadth, however, may be abouť 300 geographic or 350 English miles, consequently the superficial contents will be about 175,000 square geographic miles.

Population.- Whilst France remained a kingdom, the population was calculated at 24 millions, giving on an extent of about 140,000 square miles, 170 persons for each mile : but if, ayrceably to the latest computations, the whole popalation amount to 39 millions, the average, including the very numerous inhabitants of Flanders and the other northern acquisitions, will amount to 182 persons for every square geographic mile.

Paris, the capital of the whole French dominions, is divided into two nearly equal parts by the river Seine, there vavigable for targes of great burthen, and inclosing several islands, covered with buildings. On the largest of these islands was placed the ancient Lutetia, a city of the Parisj, from whom the present name of Paris was derived: a town of importance as early as in the time of Julius Czesar's wars in Gaul. Paris is now of a circular form, compactly built of stone, with many magnificent edifices; but in general the streets are narrow and inconvenient particularly in the centre of the town, where the population is extremely erowded; the new streets, however, towards the circumference of the circle, are broad and straight, but thinly peopled, owing to the space necessarily occupied by

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the extensive houses, gardens, offices, &c. of the principal persons of the country. Five-and-twenty years ago, in the best days of the royalty, Paris was reckoned to contain about 100,000 inbabitants less than London ; but by an enumeration made in 1803, the population was found to be only 547,756. The stability of the government, however, and freedom from internal disorders, must speedily increase the number of inhabitants in that great city. Lyons was always considered as the second town in France, containing in 1762 above 115,800 people ; but the outrages committed on that industrious and prosperous place during the revolution, have inflicted a wound on its population, activity, and commerce, not easily to be repaired. Marseilles and Bourdeaux, towns of great industry and trade, are supposed to contain cach about s0,000 inhabitants: Brussels, once the capital of the Austrian Netherlands, now become a part of France, is a handsome town, with an equal population. The other principal towns of France are Lille, Ghent, Liege, Cologne, Coblentz, Mentz, Strasburg, Nantes, Rouen, Dijon, Orleans, Tours, Toulouse, Montpellier, Nisntes, Geneva, of which the population varies from twenty-five to sixty thousand.

In the course of the late eventful revolution in France, a new division of the territory was adopted, by distributing the whole into departments of nearly cqual extent, design nated from some principal river, mountain, or other remarkable natural object within the bounds. This modern division being established by public authority, an acquaintance with it becomes necessary for understandmg the history of transactions in France ; for which reason, the following Table is annexed, pointing out the new divisions and the chief towns of each, together with the ancient provinces with which these new divisions are con. Dected.

OLD

OLD FRANCE.

[graphic]

Lorraine

The North Lille
Straits of Calais Arras
Somme

Amiens
Lower Seine

Rouen
Calvados

Caen
The Channel Coutances
Orne

Alençon
Eure

Evreux Seine

PARIS Seine and Oise Versailles Oise

Beauvais Aisne

Laon Seine and Marne Melun Marne

Chalons Ardennes Mezieres Aube

Troyes Upper Marne Chaumont Mouse

Bar on Ornain Moselle

Metz Meurthe Nancy Vosges Epinal Upper Rhine

Colmar Lower Rhine Strasburg Isle and Vilaine Rennes Coasts of the

St. Brieux North Finisterre Quimper Morbihan Vannes Lower Loire Nantes de Sarthe

Le Mans
Mayenne Laval
Mayenne and

Loire
Indre and Loire Tours
Loiret

Orleans
Eure and Loire Chartres
Loire and Cher Blois
Indre

Chateauroux Cher

Bourges

Niyernois

Maine and Perche

Anjou Tourainc

Orleanois

Bersy

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