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by the Danube, the Lech, the Iser, and the Inn. The country is in general plain, although there are considerable mountains in different quarters : it has been reckoned to possess a million and a half of inhabitants, and affords mines of silver, copper, and lead; but its greatest mineral treasures are the salt springs of Traunstein and Reichenthal, Munich, the capital, with a population of 35,000, is one of the handsomest towns in Germany, situated in a vast plain on the west side of the Iser. The religion of Bavaria is the Roman Catholic ; and from being a duchy and electorate, this state has latcly been erected into a kingdom. Wurtemburg:

This duchy, now also become a kingdom, contained before its late accessions of territory, 3,200 square miles, and 600,000 people : it occupies the most cousiderable and the most productive part of Suabia, and the face of the country is agreeably and profitably diversified by the mountains of the Black Forest, and other districts. Grain of various sorts is produced in sufficient abundance to admit of exportation, and the banks of the Necker furnish very good wine. The mineral productions are silver, copa per, lead, iron, sulphur, coal, and salt. The chief town is Stutgard, a good town : at Tubingen is an university : the established religion is Lutheranism.

Salzburg:—This country, formerly the archbishopric of Salzburg, contains about 2,880 square miles, with a population of 250,000. Being situated amongst the northern slopes of the Alps, it presents many lofty mountains and picturesque lakes, particularly that of Berchtoldsgaden, 10 the southward of the capital, Salzburg, a considerable town, with 20,000 inhabitants, pleasantly situated on the river Salza. This country furnishes mines of gold, silver, copper, and lead; and at Hallen are very valuable salt mines dug into the heart of a high hill, through which streams of water are conveyed, to be impregnated with the salt, which is afterwords crystalised by evaporation : warm mineral springs are likewise found in various parts. The Roman catholic is the established religion ; and by a late arrangement this ecclesiastic state has been secularised and united to Austria.

The sovereigns of the territories lying along the right or east bank of the Rhine, having formed themselves into a confederation, under the protection of France, the Empe. for of Germany, Francis the II. in 1806 resigning all claim to that title, declared himself and his successors to be hereditary emperors of Austria ; and lately sundry states in the north-western parts of the country have been drawn together to constitute the kingdom of Westphalia.

VII.

PRUSSIA.

Situation and extent.—This kingdom, which commetced only in the year 1707, and which had arisen to be one of the most considerable powers on the continent, is now, by the reverses of the late campaigns, reduced to a very feeble and precarious situation. In its prosperity, its greatest length along the Baltic was about 560 miles, and its greatest breadth about 300. Before the division of Poland, this kingdom, in all its parts, some of which are detached from the main body of the country, contained above five millions and a half of inhabitants ; but including that of the Polish acquisitions, the whole population belonging to the crown of Prussia has been reckoned at abore eight millions.

The capital of the Prussian dominions is Berlin, a very extensive and well-built town, but containing only about 140,000 people; it is situated on the river Spree, and fortified. Konigsberg, the principal town of Prussia Proper, is a noted sca-port on the river Pregel, near the Baltic,

containing containing upwards of 50,000 people : Breslau, the capital of Silesia, is a large and handsome town : Dantzick, once an independent city, is still a very considerable port on the Baltic, with 36,000 inhabitants : Potsdam, a modern town, of 26,000 people, is chiefly remarkable for the palace of the Prussian monarchs : Magdeburg, a strong town on the Elbe, contains 26,000 inhabitants : Stettin, a trading town, of 19,000 people, is situated on the Oder: Elbing contains 14,000, and carries on a considerable trade by the Baltic.

Climate and soil. From its latitude and its situation along the south shores of the Baltic, and from the number of lakes, marshes, and forests, occurring in the northern parts of the Prussian dominions, the climate is generally moist and cold : those districts, however, which border the Austrian territories, are both more healthy and more fertile, while the environs of the metropolis itself présent little besides barren sandy plains.

Mountains. The whole Prussian dominions may be considered as one vast plain, excepting the southern parts of Silesia, where are ranges of bills rising to a considerable height, connected with the great chain of the Carpathian mountains.

Rivers - The Elbe and the Oder bave been already mentioned; but in the eastern parts of the kingdom flows the Vistula, which, after a course of 450 miles from the southeast, falls into the Baltic below Dantzic. . The Pregel and the Memel are boih

very

considerable streams. Lakes.-Prussia presents many lakes, in general of little utility or beauty. At the mouths of the rivers Oder, Vistula, Pregel, and Memel, are a sort of lakes opening into the Baltic, but divided froın it by long narrow slips of low land thrown up by the contrary action of these rivers and the sea.

Mineral productions.--In some parts of Silesia gold and silver have been found; but at present the mines of lead, copper, and iron, are wrought to considerable advantage. Coal is also found in some hilly districts, with peat in the plains. On the shores of the Baltic, and even at a great depth under ground, in various parts of the Prussian dominions, are found quantities of amber, sufficient to produce an annual revenue of from four to five thousand pounds. This substance, which from the Arabians we call amber, was by the Greeks named electron; and from the property of giving light and attracting certain substances when it is rubbed and heated, is derived the general term electricity, now applied to similar powers in other bodies, by whatever mode these powers are excited.

copper,

Animals.-Prussia, in addition to the ordinary animals of Germany, is sometimes visited by the urus or wild cattle of the north : the lynx, the elk, the bear, are also not unknown ; and sturgeon has been caught in the Oder.

Vegetable productions.-Forests are found in many parts of these dominions, particularly in Prussia Proper, in Silesia, and in the late acquisitions from Poland : the same provinces also furnish grain in abundance for exportation : tobacco has been long cultivated, and is now met with run wild in fundry districts.

The prevailing religion of the Prussian states is the protestant; but catholics are in some quarters very numerous, enjoying perfect liberty of conscience. The chief seminaries of education are the universities of Konigsberg and Francfort on the Oder.

Government. The power of the Prussian monarch is unlimited by any senate or assembly of representatives of the people. The great object of the kings having been the formation of a numerous standing army, or rather a militia, every male was in fact berni a soldier ; but late experience has shown that, although by the exercise of military discipline in the hands of an absolute prince, vast armies may

be formed and inaintained, yet to communicate to them the VOL. II.

genuine genuine spirit of patriotism, by which all their operations ought to be animated, is a task which no authority cam accomplish.

VIII.

POLAND

Situation and extent.--Although this once important and interesting portion of Europe be now erased from the catam Jogue of independent states, and parcelled out among

its three powerful neighbours, professed friends and protectors, but in truth, as events have shown, its most decided foes :although all this have happened, yet as, in the course of human affairs, Poland may one day resume ber place among the nations, the following short account of the country, as it stood before its late total dismemberment, will not be unacceptable.

When entire Poland extended from the frontiers of the Prussian doninions to the river Nieper, above 600 miles, and from north to south about 420 miles, containing upwards of 220,000 square miles. The population of the country has never been well ascertained, but estimated at 12 millions : that of Warsaw, the capital, situated on the Vistula, is supposed to exceed 65,000 : Cracow, formerly the capital, contains 94,000, and is likewise seated on the Vistula, but much nearer its scurce : Lemberg, or Leopol, has 20,000.

Climate and soil. The air of Poland is various : in the northern parts, where there are many lakes and forests, it is call, but not unhealthy; as it is also along the southern frontiers, where the lofty mountains retain the snow

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