« הקודםהמשך »
Gregory, the Enlightener, converts the Gregory, XI. Pope, his character, ii. 463 ;
Arminians, i. 262.
transfers the papal seat from Avignon
or Nazianzen and of Nyssa, ac to Rome, and repents of it, ibid.
count of them and their works, i. 277.
XII. Angeli.Carrario, Antipope,
the Great, sends Augustine with ii. 519; resigns, 521 ;
many Benedictines into Britain in vi
XV. Pope, founds the college de
cent. i. 399; the success of his labours propaganda fide at Rome in xvü cent.
in the West, 399; dislikes the methods iii. 393; bis character, 450.
by which Christianity is propagated in Gribaldi, Matthew, bis doctrine, iü. 359;
his time, ibid. and m; his literary cha inclines to the Arian system, 361, sub
racter, 417; moral and religious cha not. m in fine.
racter, 419; expositions, 421; institutes Grisons, doctrine of Claudius propagated
many superstitious rites, 429; his canon among them, iii. 359 and 6.
of the Mass, 430; and stations, ibid. is Groningenists, a sect of the refined Ana-
Successful in his dispute with the Do baptists, and whence so called, iv. 163
of Tours, his character as a wri. Grotius, bis book on the rights of war
ter, i. 418.
and peace, iii. 435; endeavours to re-
Pisides, his works, i. 456.
concile the church of Rome and tho
I. Pope, excommunicates and Protestants, 472; a philosophical re-
deposes Leo the Isaurian, i. 517 ; his former, particularly of the Peripatetics,
zeal for images, 518, s.
iv. 18: his hypothesis concerning the
II. Pope, zealous for image wore prophets, iv. 72: a favour of the Ar-
ship, i. 518, s.
minians, 129; misunderstanding be-
VII. Hildebrand, Pope, his elec. tween him and Prince Maurice, which
tion unanimously approved, ii. 157, turns to an open rupture, and whence,
158; bis extraordinary character, ibid. 132 and 133, i ; is cast into prison, 133
and u; 159 and w; aims at universal and k, 134 and I.
empire in church and state, and the Gruet, opposes Calvin, iii. 315; his im-
methods used by him to accomplish this pious tenets, and fate, ibid.
end, 158, 160, 161 and y; requires the Guelphs and Guibelines, a seditious faction
subjection of France and Spain to the in xiii cent. ii. 358; become formida-
see of Rome, 160; his demands more ble in Italy, 359.
regarded in Spain than in France and Guido, Guy Juvenal, attempts a reforma-
England, 161; the success they met tion among the Monks in xv, cent. ii.
with in other places, 163; bis zeal for 542.
extending papal authority meets with Guiscard, Robert, Duke of Apulia, drives
the greatest success in Italy, and why, the Saracens out of Italy in xi cent. ii.
164, 165 ; decrees against simony and 121.
concubinage among the clergy, and the Gunpowder Plot, an account of, iii. 463,
tumults they excite, 165, 166 and q, 167 464; remarkable passage in one of the
and r; reasons for estirpating investi conspirator's letters, 464, &.
tures, 167; dies, and is sainted, 180; Guntherus, his character, ij. 340.
his moderate and cardid behaviour to Gustavus, Vasa Ericson, king of Sweden,
Berenger, 209; revokes an order of his
zealous in promoting the reformation
predecessor Pope Nicholas II. 210 and
among the Swedes, iii. 61 ; his zeal
; bis real sentiments of the Eucharist, tempered with great prudence, ibid.
211 and z; his zeal for imposing the 62 and m; publishes Petri's translation
Romish ritual, and a uniformity of wor of the Bible, and permits the Archbi-
ship on all the Latin churches, 216. shop of Upsal to make another, ibid.
IX. Pope, excommunicates Fre and n; commands them to bold a con-
deric II. and why, ii. 327 and k; bis ference, which ends in favour of Petri,
charge of impiety against the Emperor, ibid. resolved at Westeraas to admit the
334; the calamities that arose from his Reformation, which is opposed by the
ambition, 356; sends a copy of the clergy, and why, ibid. and o; subverts
charge to all the European Princes, the papal empire, and is declared head
wbich is answered by the Emperor, of the church, 63.
357 : drew ingmense sums out of Eng-
-, Adolphus maintains the cause
land in the reign of Henry III. 356, i ; of the Germanic liberties against the
attempts to deposc Frederic, and how emperor Ferdinand in xvii cent. iii. 459;
falls at the battle of Lutzen, ibid. and
X. Pope, his character, ii. 361,
362; bis imperious and threatening let: Gulhebald, an English priest, successful
ters to the German Princess, &c. ib. and in his mission among the Norwegians
3 ; suppresses the various orders of Men in x cent. ii. 80.
dicants, and confines them to four, 369. Guyon, Madame, a patron of Quictims in
France, iii. 544 and o; ber writings re 388; subscribed by the moderate, but
futed by Bossuet, 543 ; hence arises a produces new contests among the Euty-
dispute between Bossuet and Fenelon, chians, 339.
who defends Madaine Guyon, ibid. Henricians, a sect in xii cent. ii. 311 ;
their founder Henry endeavours a refor.
ination among the clergy, but is warınly
llaan, Galen Abraham, founder of the opposed by Bernard Abbott of Clairval,
Galenists, and character, iv. 167: bis 312; his condemnation and death, ibid.
opinions, and by whom opposed, ibid. and r;. is supposed to be a disciple of
Hackspan, a learned expositor of the Peter de Bruys, but without foundation,
Scriptures in xvii cent. iv. 26.
ibid. and y.
Hager, writes against the Protestants, and Henry, Archbishop of Upsal, founder of
the peace of Augsburg, iii. 454.
the church of the Finlanders in xii cent.
Hales, Alexander, an eminent philosopher ii. 289; bis zeal censured, is massacred
in xiii cent. ii. 343; whence styled the and sainted, ibid.
Irrefragable Doctor, ibid. and z; his IV. Emperor, refuses to resign bis
right of investitures, and to obey the
- a chief leader of the Latitudina insolent order of Pope Gregory VII. ii.
rians in xvii cent. bis great character, 176; assembles a council at Worms,
v. 397 and d.
and accuses the Pope of flagitious prac-
Halilgarius, his system of morality, and lices, ibid. is excommunicated and de-
character of it, ii. 41.
posed by Gregory, 177 ; his pusillani-
Hanau, church of, embraces Calvinism mous conduct at Canusium, 178; breaks
in xvi cent. iii. 299,
his convention, and renews the war
Hanover. Sce Lilurgy, iv. 406.
against the Pope, 179.
Ilarald, propagates and establishes Chris-
II. of England, bis dispute with
tianity among the Danes in ix cent. ij. Alexander III. Pope, ii. 267; reasons to
think he did not consent to the murder
Hardenberg, Albert, attempts to introduce of Becket, 269, t; performs severe pen-
Calvinism into Breinen, iii. 280.
ance for this supposed murder, 270
Hardouin, bis Atheists detected, iii. 444,
p; character, 511.
VIII. of England renounces the
Ilarmenoplus, 'Constantius, his works, ii. papal supremacy, iii. 78, 79 and p; the
281 ; a polemic writer in xii cent. and reasons for it not fairly represented,
ibid. and q; the expedient suggested to
Harmonies, Lutheran, of thic Evangelists, the King by Cranmer, and the effects,
80 and 1.
Harphius, Henry, a mystic writer in xv IV. of France, renounces the Re-
cent. ii. 558.
formed religion, with his views, iii. 282.
Hallemists, a Dutch scct, their rise in xvii Duke of Saxony, deserts Luther-
cent. and pernicious tenets, iv. 123; re anism, and embraces the communion of
semble the Verschorists in their reli. the Reformed church, iv. 65.
gious system, but differ from them in Heraclian's book against the Manichæans
some things, and in what, 124 ; their in vi cent. i. 432 and y.
founder is deposed from his office, yet lleraclius, Emperor, persecutes the Jews,
deserts not the reformed religion, ibid. and compels them to embrace Chris-
a chief maxim among them, ibid. still tianity, in vii cent. i. 412; his edict in
subsist, though not under their sounder's favour of the Monothelites, i. 466; issues
another, called the Ecthesis, lo com-
Haymo, Bishop of Halberstadt, lis cha promise the dispute concerning the one
racter, ii. 31 and c; his works, 40. will and operation in Christ, 467.
Hederic, writes against the Protestants, Herbert, of Cherbury, Lord, account of,
and the peace of Augsburg, iii. 454. iii. 423'; instance of fanaticism, ibid.
lleidegger, lleury, forni of Concord drawn and g; his peculiar tenets, and by whom
up by him, and its fate, iv. 125, 126 refuted, 424, h,
Heresies, ancient, revived in v cent. and
Heidelberg, Catechism of, adopted by the cause new troubles, i. 371 ; remains of
Calvinists, iii. 280.
them in vi cent. 431 ; continue in x
llelmont, John Baptist, a Rosecrucian, his cent. ii. 115.
character, iii. 437.
Heretics, dispute about their baptism in iii
Hemorobaptists, a sect anong the Jews, an cent. i. 223; the determination of the
account of, iii. 197 and a.
African and Oriental churches on the
Hemmingius, Nicholas, his character, iii. point, ibid. and the insolent bebaviour;
299; chief of the disciples of Melanc of Stephen, Bishop of Rome, 224.
thon in Denmark, ibid.
Heribald, writes against Radbert Pasca-
Henoticon, published by Zeno, what, i. sius, ij. 49.
Meric, Monk of Auxeres, said to have an iii. 432 ; innumerable advantages of it,
ticipated Des Cartes in the manner of 433 ; a short view of it in xviii cent iv.
investigating truth, ii. 16; is sainted, 83.
Hoailly, Bishop of Winchester, his endea-
Hermits, their rise in iii cent, and whence, vours to lower the authority of the
English church and character, iv. 206 ;
Hermogenes, his tenets, i. 188 ; opposed by whom opposed, 207.
and refuted by Tertullian, ibid. and b. Hobbes, a daring and subtle enemy to
Herrnhutters, rise of that sect and foun. Christianity, his character, iii. 419; his
ders in xviii cent. iv. 198; account of adherents and apologists, ibid. and a;
their descent from the Bohemian and his writings, and if he recanted, ibid.
Moravian brethren doubtful, ibid. pro and b; opposed by whom, iv. 76.
fess to agree with the doctrine and opi- Hoburg, Christian, a petulant writer
nions of the Lutherans, and what credit against the Lutherans in xvii cent. and
ought to be given to such professions, character, iv. 61.
199; Dr. Mosheim's vague description Hoe, Matthew, his defence of the Protes-
of their sect censured, with its infamous tants, iii. 454; his perfidy, 457, s.
character, ibid. and l; sap the founda- Hoffman, Daniel, disputes between him
tions of morality, ibid. sub not. l.
and his colleagues, iii. 222; his tenets
Hervæus, Natalis, account of, ii. 488. which be is obliged to retract, ibid. bis
Hervey, a learned Benedictine monk, and sanatical extravagance, censured, iv.
expositor in xii cent. ii. 289 and c.
Hesychius, a moral writer in vii cent. i. Hoffman, Melchior, his infamous conduct,
Hetzer, Lewis, his infamous character, iij. Holidays, their number diminished by an
326 ; denies the divinity of Christ, 354. edict of Urban VIII. iii. 549,
Hevelius, a German philosopher, in xvii Holstenius, Lucas, attempts to reconcile
cent. iii. 431.
the Greek and Latin churches, iij. 553
Heyling, of Lubec, his pious labours in and d.
Ethiopia in xvii cent. iii. 560 and u. Homilies, their origin in viii. cent. i. 512.
Hierax, of Leontium, his notions of Honorius, Pope, embellishes churches in
Christ's office and ministry, i. 237 ; ac vii cent. i. 463 ; favours the doctrine of
count of the sect formed by him, and of one will in Christ, 468; writers of the
his tenets, ibid.
church of Rome attempt to save his in-
Hierocles, his works against the Chris fallibility, ibid. q; is condemned by the
tians answered by Eusebius, i. 260. sixth General Council, 470.
High churchmen, their principles, iv. 113. Hospitallers, Knights, origin and nature of
See Nonjurors, 111, &c.
their office, ii. 239; deviate from the
Hilary, Bishop of Poictiers, his character design of their original institution, and
and works, i. 278 and f.
commence warriors, ibid. and settle in
Hildebert, Archbishop of Tours, his cha Cyprus, and from thence remove to
racter, ii. 195 ; his excellent system of Malta, the present residence of their
divinity, 200 and d; morality, 201, e. chief, or master, 240 and z.
Hildebrand, Pope. See Gregory VII. ii. Huber, Samuel, his controversy concern-
ing Predestination, iii. 259 ; is deposed
defends Callixtus's reputation, and banished from Wittemberg, ibid.
in xvii cent. iv. 34.
Hubmeyer, Balthazar, an Anabaptist, his
Hildegard, pretended prophetess in xii enormous conduct, iii, 326.
cent. ii. 286 ; the excessive.veneration Huet, Bishop of Avranches, bis works, iii.
paid to her, ibid.
448 and r.
Hilduin, of St. Dennis, his celebrated Huguenots, derivation of that word, ii.
work entitled Areopagitica, ii. 30 and s. 281 and d; persecuted in France in xvii
Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims, his cha cent. 463.
racter, ii. 31, 32 and e; exposition of Huisseaux, of Saumur, his fpacificatory
the four Books of Kings, 40.
principles in xvii cent. iii. 471.
Hippolitus, his character and works, i. Humanity, its state in xiii cent. iji. 340.
212 and y; adopts Origen's plan in his Humbert, Cardinal, an eminent polemic
writer among the Greeks in xi cent. ii.
History of the church, the method of 194; his notions of the real presence of
treating it in the xvi cent. why changed Christ's body and blood in the Sacra-
from that in the preceding centuries,
iii. 5; its division into two heads, ibid. Hume, his censure of Luther'e opposition
Ist, general--its extent, 6–2dly, par to indulgences, and other Popish super-
ticular, ibid. which is subdivided into stitions, refuted, iii. 27, p; charge
two parts, ibid.--of the Reformation, against the Reformers examined and re-
ibid. its improvements in xvii cent. futed, 106, 111.
Ilungary, Christianity established in x and from what motives, iv. 149, 158
cent. ii. 77 and m; the honour of their and r.
conversion claimed by different na- Jansenism, its rise and the contests it pro-
tions, 78 and n; Reformation intro duced, iii. 523; Jansenius's book, 524
duced and settled, iv. 408.
and g, k; combatted by the Jesuits, ibid.
Iluss, Jobn, his character, ii. 522 and p; who
procure its condemnation ai Rome,
declaims vehemently against the cor by Urban VIII. 525 ; this opposed by
ruptions of the clergy and court of the doctors of Louraine and other Au-
Rome in xv cent. ibid. odious to the gustinians, also in France by the Abbot
clergy, and the reasons, 523 and q; of St. Cyran, ibid. and k, l.
publicly recommends tbe doctrines of Jansenists, their contests with the Jesuists
Wickliff, 524 and u; is condemned by described, and how both parties were
the council of Constance, and burned balanced, iii. 526 and m; methods and
alive, 525; the true cause of his suffer arguments employed by both parties
ings, 526 and z.
in this controversy, and miracles pre-
Hussinet, Nicholas of, head of the Hus tended by the Jansenists, ibid. 527 and
sites, ii. 552.
no; persecuted and by whom, 530, 531 ;
Hussilés, commotions made by them, to their austere piety examined, 534, 535;
revenge the death of their founder and complaints against the church of Rome,
Jerome of Prague, ii. 552 ; their aver and their general principles just and
sion to administer the Sacrament in reasonable, but the consequences and
one kind only, ibid. many put to cruel applications, faulty, as appears from the
deaths by the order of Sigismund, ibid. sentiments of the Abbot of Cyran, their
war carried on, and shocking cruelties great oracle, 534, 535 and a; deserved.
by them and their opponents, ibid. di ly denominated Rigourists, ibid. their
vide into two parties, 553.
notions of repentance, 536 ; exempli-
Hyrcania, the Gospel propagated in viii fied in the Abbé de Paris, 537; and in
cent. j. 477.
the female convert of Port Royal, 538
and e; many ambitious to live in its
neighbourhood, ibid. the end these peni-
Jablonsdy, Dr. drew up a plan of ecclesi. tents bad in view, 539; the convent de-
astical discipline and public worsbip, molished by Lewis XIV. 540.
Jansenius, five propositions of his book
Jacobites, & sect of the Monophysites, condemned by Pope Innocent X. iii.
why so called, and froin whom, i. 434; 529 ; doctrines contained in them, ibid.
their state and subdivisions in xvi cent. 530 and a; distinction invented by Ar-
iii. 190 and h.
naud in favour of these propositions,
Jagello, Duke of Lithuania, by what means ibid. a bull of Alexander VI). against
converted in xix cent. ii. 443 ; changes him, with a form of declaration sent
his name to Uladislaus, ibid.
into France, ibid. 531 ; which produces
Jamblichus, of Chaleis, an account of this melancholy divisions and tumults, ibid.
philosopher, and his successors, i. 266 persecution of his followers through the
Jesuits, ibid. but suspended under Cle-
James, Bishop of Edessa, translates the ment IX. 532; conditional subscription
dialectics into Syriac in vii cent. i. 451. obtained, ibid. the peace granted the
J. of England, attempts the recon Jansenists by Clement only transitory,
ciliation of the Lutheran and Reformed and totally ceased under Lewis XIV.
churches, iv. 8 and f; his seeming ibid. and u.
attachment to the Puritans, and decla- Japan, state of Christianity, iii. 405, 406;
ration in an assembly at Edinburgh, 90 its success owing to two circumstances,
and d; took a principal part in the con. and also to another, ibid. a; prejudices
ference at Hampton Court, 91, e; with of the natives, and divisions among the
the adulation of Whitgift and Bancroft missionaries, ibid. 407 ; accusations
ibid. sub fin. not. e; remarkable change against the Jesuits by the other mission-
of his conduct after his accession to aries, ibid. and against the latter by
the crown, 92; Abboit's endeavours to the Jesuits, ibid. its downfal and extir-
confirm the king in Calvinism, with pation how effected, with the reasons,
that Prince's dislike of the proceedings ibid. 403 ; firmness of the converts and
at Dort, 92, 93 and h; the reason for missionaries under horrid tormenis, with
the King's distike, 94 and i ; the change the causes of this persecution, ibid. and
of opinion satal to tbe Puritans, 95; c; edict by which Europeans are forbid
bis death, ibid.
to approach the Japanese dominions,
- II. his imprudence, üi. 466 ; why 409; except a few Dutch, ibid.
obliged to abdicate, wben the Rovolu. Jaqueline, abbess of the convent of Port
tion took place under William, Prince Royal, her character, iii. 537 and c, d.
of Orange, ibid. tolerates the Quakers, Jasidians, Jezedæans, à séct in xvi cent.
sone account of, ïü. 198; their opinion nished Venice, tut afterward recalled,
about the evil genius, ibid. and e. 483, 484, a ; the influence they bave in
Iconoclasts, who, and their origin in viii France considered, 493 and r; the mul-
cent. i. 517; called also Iconomachi, titude of their adversaries, particularly
518; their numbers increase under the the Jansenists, in xvii cent. 503, 504
patronage of Claudius bishop of Turin, and k; bistory by Bernard, 504, sub not.
in ix cent. ii. 47.
k; interest strengthened by opposition,
Iconoduli, called Iconolatræ, who, i. 518. ib. 505 and l; some of their pernicious
Ideas, universal, controversy about in x maxims, 513 and s, 514 and t, u; books
cent. ii. 90 and k.
written against them by Paschal and
Jena, academy founded at, in xvi cent. by Perrault burned, 515, 6; answered by
the Dukes of Saxeweimar, iii. 243; the F. Daniel, ibid. sub not. highly com-
moderation of the divines here in re plained of and condemned by Alexan-
gard to Calixtus's plan of concord, iv. der VII. Pope, 516; their disputes with
the Jansenists 524.
Jerome, of Palestine, his character, i. 279; Jesus, Fathers of the oratory, founded in
admired for his translation of the Scrip xvii cent. by Cardinal Berulle, iii. 501 ;
tures into Latin, 284.
design of their institution and fame,
de St. Foi, writes against the ibid. the nature of their office, ibid.
Jews in xv cent. ii. 559.
and d, e.
Jerusalem, first Christian church, i. 61; Jelzer, an account of the impious fraud
Patriarch of, how extensive bis juris. practised upon him in xvi cent. by the
diction in xvi cent. iii. 183 and q; fa Dominicans, iii. 18, k.
mous council held bere in xvii cent. iii. Jews, their civil and religious state under
Herod at Christ's birth, i. 43; after He-
Jesuales, or apostolic clerks, their rise in rod's death, ibid. the calamities they
xiv cent. ii. 484 ; their order abolished suffer under the Roman Governors, yet
by Clement IX. Pope, ibid.
permitted to enjoy the free exercise of
Jesuiabas, of Gaddala, Nestorian pontiff, their religion, 44; their sufferings from
his treaty with Mahomet and Omar in their own rulers, ibid. and 45; their
viü cent. i. 465: the testamentary di religion corrupted among all ranks, and
ploma of the former to the Christians the division of their doctors into va-
examined, ibid. k.
rious sects, 45; their principal sects and
Jesuits, their institution seems to have di points of debate, ibid. 46 and m; yet
minished the credit of the clerks school exercise mutual toleration, with the
in xv cent. ii, 546 ; nature of their or motives, 47; variously interpret the
der and institution, iii. 116; the me doctrine of future rewards and punish-
thods by which they propagate Cbris. ments, ibid. the moral doctrine of their
tianity, considered, 117; the nature and sects, 49; corrupt the external worship
division of this society into three class of God by rites from the Gentiles, 50
es, 139; and, according to some, into and t; various causes of their corrup-
four, ibid. x; zeal for the interest of the tion, ib. some remains of piety among
Roman Pontiffs, and the true motives them, 51 ; their state out of Pales-
of their missions, 140, 141 and y; ex tine, an evident proof of a providence
posed to many perils and how delivered, in human affairs, 53 and z; persecute
with insinuating manners, ibid. their the Christians in Palestine and foreign
character and sate admirably described countries, 65, 66 and e, f ; their plausi-
by Dr. Brown of Dublin, ibid. a; zeal ble pretexts for this procedure, ibid. and
ous advocates for the ancient forms of
the punishments they undergo, 66; the
doctrine in the Romish church, and state of their philosophy, 82; their se-
why, 167; and for the infallibility and dition under Barcbochebas, and its me-
unlimited supremacy of the Pope, 169 lancholy consequences to them, with
and y; their notions of divine grace and
advantages to Christianity, 129; the
original sin, 169, doctrine about the cause of dissensions in the church in ii
motives to moral actions, 170 and z; cent. 170 ; their attempts against Chris-
about probability and philosophical sin, tianity in iïi cent. 202 ; their vain at-
ibid. and a; ahout the Sacraments, 171 tempt to rebuild their temple in iv cent.
and b; make use of the intricate 80 258; the dreadful phenomenon on this
phistry of the Schoolmen to puzzle the occasion, and disputes about it, ibid.
Protestants, 220; their stratagems cor and g, h; many converted in v cent.
rupt the Lutheran doctors, 227; accus. and by what means, i. 333; oppress
ed of sinister views by the other orders, the Christians under the command
ji. 386; their methods of converting of Gamaliel, 341 ; several embrace
persons procured them enemies, 388; Christianity in vi cent. 399; compel-
aceused of malpractices in China, 398; led to be Christians in vüi cent. by
principal charge against them, 400 ; ba the Emperor Heraclius, 442 ; many