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Benedict VI. Pope, his character and fate, Berne, an account of the cruel and impi-
ii. 97.

ous fraud acted in xvi cent. upon one
VII. Pope, account of, ii. 97. Jetzer, by the Dominicans, ii. 18, k.

VIII. is raised to the pontificate, church of, opposes Calvinism, iii.
ii. 147.

278.
IX. his infamous character, ii. 147. Bernard, St. Abbot of Clairval, preaches

- XII. his good character, ii. 461; up the Crusade in xii cent. ii. 235; draws
is censured for the festival he added to up a rule of discipline for the Knights
the ritual, 496.

Templars, 240; exposes in his writings
XIII. Anti-Pope, an account of, the views of the pontiffs, bishops, and
ii. 518, 521.

monks, 257 and w, x; considered as the
XIII. Pope, his character, iv, 199. second founder of the Cistercian monks,

XIV. Pope, Prosper Lambertini, who are called from him Benardin
his great character, iv. 189; attempts to monks, 274 ; his great influence, ibid.
reform the clergy, but in vain, ib. apology for bis own conduct in the di-
Benedictine order of monks, its rise in vi visions between the Cistercian monks,

cent. i. 414; the founder's views in this and those of Clugni, ibid. and h; and
institution, ibid. degeneracy among answer to it by Peterlof Clugni, 275 and
them from his practice, 415 ; its rapid

i ; combats the doctrine of the school-
progress in the west, ib. their founder's men, 294; his charge against Abelard,
discipline neglected and forgot by the 295 and t; as also against Gilbert de
monks in x cent. ii. 102.

la Porée, 296; opposes the doctrine of
Benefices, the right of nomination to them the immaculate conception of the Vir-

assumed by the Romish pontiffs, who gin Mary, 304 ; combats the sect of the
are opposed by the civil power in xiii Apostolics, 320.
cent. ii. 348, 349.

Bernard, of Sens, a mystic writer in sy
Bennet, Gurvas, gives the denomination cent. his character, ii. 558.

of Quakers to the sect so called, and Bernoulli, two astronomers in Switzerland
why, iv. 145.

in xvii cent. their character, iii. 431.
Berenger, introduces logic into France, ii. Bertramn, Ratramn, monk of Corby, emi-

141 ; his dispute with Lanfranc against pent for refuting Radbert's doctrine of
the real presence of Christ's body and the Eucharist, ii. 31 and b'; prepares to
blood in the Holy Sacrament, ibid. 199 draw up a clear and rational explicatioa
and a; commentary on the Revelations, of this important subject by the order of
ibid. explains the doctrines of Scripture Charles the Bald, 50 and l, m; an ac-
by logical and metaphysical rules, ibid. count of this explication, ibid. defends
maintains his doctrine of the Eucharist Godeschalcus, 53; his dispute with
against synodical decrees, and the Hincmar, about the hymn Trina Deitas,
threats and punishment of the civil porr 55 ; maintains the cause of the Latin
er, 207 ; abjures his opinions, but teach church against Pholius, 59.
es thom soon afterward, 20%; his con- Berulle, Cardinal, institutes the order of
duct imperfectly represented, ibid. Oratorians, in xvii cent. iii. 501.
makes a public recantation with an oath, Beryllus denies the proper subsistence of
and yet propagates his real sentiments Christ before his coming into the world,
of the Eucharist, 209; his second de i. 238; confuted by Origen, he returns
claration before Gregory VII. ibid. sub to the church, ibid. and 239.
scribes a third confession with an oath, Bessarion, how employed by the Greeks
211; yet retracts publicly, and compo in the council of Florence, ii. 536;
ses a refutation, ibid. and z; whence terms of reconciliation made by him
appear Gregory's sentiments of the Eu on their part with the Latins not lasting,
charist, ibid. and x; his fate and the ibid. created soon afterward a cardinal,
progress of bis doctrine, 212, 213; his ibid. his character, 547 and m.
real sentiments, ibid. and c; the weak- Beza, Theodore, teaches the sciences at
ness of the arguments used by the Ro Geneva with success, iii. 275 ; his La-
man Catholic writers against the real tin version of the New Testament, and
sentiments of this divine, ibid. d; the

notes, 210.
nature and manner of Christ's pre- Bibliander, an eminent writer in xvi cent.
sence in the Sacrament not fixed by the iii. 320.
church of Rome in xi cent, ib. sub fin. Biblical colleges, what so called, and their
not. d.

rise in xvii cent. iv. 39.
Berg, the famous form of concord review- Biblicists, Christian doctors so called, their

ed there, and its contents, iii. 254 and c. rise in xii cent. ii. 292; decline in siji
Bermudes, John, sent into Abyssinia with cent. 407; oppose the scholastic di-

the title of patriarch, in xvi cent. iii. vines, 409.
132; met with little or no success in Biddle, John, a famous writer among the
his ministry, ibid. a mistake about Loy Socinians in xvii cent. iv. 173 and w.
ola being sent into Abyssinia, ibid. g. Biel, a scholastic writer, in xv cent. ii. 548.

Bishops, appointed first at Jerusalem, i. 456 and q; account of the war, and

91 ; the nature and extent of their dig. dreadful consequences of it to the King nity at their first institation, ibid. their and the Bohemians, ibid. how defeated, authority augmented by the councils, ibid. r and ; progress of the war unfa146 ; acknowledge themselves the dele vourable to the confederates, with the gates of their respective churches, and Emperor's proceedings, 457, 458 ; Gus. authoritative rules of faith and manners tavus Adolphus intervenes, 459 ; end of when claimed by them, ibid. their pow

the thirty years' war, ibid. the peace of er vehemently asserted by Cyprian in Westphalia, advantages to the protestiii cent. 209; their contentions with ants, and the disappointment of the each other about the extent of power, in Pope, 460, 461, and y. iv and following centuries, produced Bohemian, Moravian brethren, from violent commotions in the church, 276; whence descended, iii. 297 ; their chadisputes between the bishops of Rome racter, ibid. recommend themselves to and of Constantinople in v cent. j. 346 ; Luther's friendship, and embrace the their court when first established, 351; sentiments of the Reformed, ibid. their ambition to extend their jurisdic. Bohemians, converted to Christianity in tion in x cent. ii. 100; aspire aster, and ix cent. ii. 4. obtain, temporal dignities, ibid. admit Boineburg, Baron, deserts the Protestant persons to the order of saints indepen religion, in xvii cent, and the cause ex. dently on the power of the Roman pon amined, iii. 477. tiff, 110; oppose the arrogance of the Bois, Abbe du, his ambition a principal obpontiffs in xiii cent. 348; disputes be stacle to the project of union between tween them and the Mendicants, 476 ; the English and French churches, iv. sentiments of the Puritans concerning 243. See Girardin, them, 510 and n.

Boleslaus, King of Poland, revenges the Bizochi, a sect. See Tertiaries, ii. 391, murder of Adalbert, Bishop of Prague, &c.

ii. 120 ; compels the Prussians to reBlanc, Lewis le, bis writings to reconcile ceive Christianity, ibid.

the Romish and Reformed churches in Bolonia, the fame of this academy in xii

Ivii cent. iv. 86 ; unsuccessful, 87, cent. ii. 248; spurious diploma for its Blandrata, George, propagates Socinian. antiquity, ibid. e; the study of the an

ism in Transylvania, and his character, cient Roman law very much promoted iii. 371.

in it, 250. Blesdyck, Nicholas, charges David George Bolsec, Jerom, declaims against Calvin's with maintaining blasphemous errors,

doctrine of divine decrees, and his and has bis body burnt, iii. 350, 351. character, iii. 316; his treatment from Blesensis, Petrus, his works, ii. 283 and o; Calvin causes a breach between the refutes the Jews in xii cent. 298.

latter and Jacques de Bourgogne, 317. Blount, Charles, his oracles of reason and Bonaventura, an eminent scholastic divine death, ïïi. 424 and i.

in xiii cent. ii. 380; his prudent enBlumius, Henry, his change of religion in deavours to establish concord among

xvii cent. and character, iii. 477 and q. the Franciscans unsuccessful, ibid. and Bockhold, John, a tailor of Leyden, and 384; his great learning, 400 and g.

mock King of munster, an account of, Boniface III. Pope, engages the Emperor iii. 329; his enthusiastic impiety and and tyrant Phocas to deprive the Bishop seditious madness, particularly at Mun of Constantinople of

title of Universter, ibid. and p, q, and r; short reign sal Bishop, and to confer it upon the and ignominious death, 330.

Roman pontiff in vii cent. i. 452. Bodin, a supposed infidel writer in xvi

V. Pope enacts the law for tacent. iii. 119.

king refuge in churches in vii cent. i. Boethius, an account of, i. 406; the only 463. pbilosopher in vi cent. 407.

Winfred, converts the Germans Boetius, his controversy with Balduin in in viii cent. i. 478 and c; his other pious xvii cent. iv. 55.

exploits, ibid. advancement in the Bogerman, presides at the Synod of Dort, church, ibid. and death, 479; entitled and bates the Arminians, iv. 137.

the Apostle of the Germans, and the Bogomiles, a sect of heretics in xii cent. ii. judgment to be formed about it, ibid.

306 ; founder Basilius, ibid. their name, and d; an account of, 507. whence, 307 and n.

attempts the conversion of the Bohemia, commotions in xv cent. excited Prussians in xi cent. ii. 121 ; his fate,

by the ministry of John Huss, ii. 552; ibid. and h. how terminated, 555; troubles there

VIII. Pope, makes a collection excited against the Protestants in xvii which is called the sixth book of the cent. iii. 456; who defend themselves Decretals in xiji cent. ii. 346 ; his arrofuriously, and choose Frederic V. King, gant assertion in favour of papal power,

and y.

349; infamous character, 363; abo of eminent piety, ibid. place the whole
lishes all the acts of his predecessor, of religion in internal devotion, ibid.
387 ; institutes the jubilee, 418; his in their shocking violation of decency, 432
solent letters to Philip the Fair of and y; execrable and blasphemous doc-
France, and quarrel, 453; excommuni. trine of some among them, 432 and 2;
cates the king, 454 ; is seized by the their first rise seems to have been in

order of Philip, and dies, ibid. and g. Italy, 434, a; several edicts against them
Borri, Joseph Francis, his romantic no in siv cent. 500; prevail over all oppo-

tions, iii. 547; is sentenced to perpetual sition, 501 ; called by various names,
imprisonment, 548.

563 ; undergo severe punishments from
Bosius, George, his doctrine in xvii cent. the inquisition in xv cent. 564 and h;
iv. 51.

as also from Ziska, 563 and i.
Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, his character Brethren, and clerks of the common life,

and works for reconciling the French an account of them in xv cent. ii. 445;
Protestants, iii. 469, 470 and u; follow. divisions into the lettered and illiterate,
ed by others of their own private au and their several employments, ib. sis-
thority, 471; plan of reconciliation re ters of this society bow employed, ibid.
commenced by the bishop of Tinia, the fame of the schools erected by them
who was commissioned for this purpose, and of some eminent men educated in
ibid. but in vain, ibid. his defence of the them, ibid. 546 and h, i.
Regale, 490, k; dispute with Fenelon,

white, their rise in xv cent. ii.
and the occasion, 545.

566; their name, whence, and what
Boulanvilliers, Count, character of him, doctrines were taught by their chief,
with his defence of Spinoza, iii. 428 ibid. and k; their leader apprehended

by Boniface IX. and burnt, with the sup-
Bourgogne, Jacques de, his breach with pression of the sect, ibid. and l; vari-

Calvin, and the occasion, iii 317. ous opinions concerning the equity of
Bourignon, Antoinette, an account of her the sentence passed upon their leader,

enthusiasm, in xvii cent. iv. 179; ber 567 and m.
main and predominant principle, 180 British, ecclesiastics, successful in their
and f; patrons of her fanatical doc ministry among the Germans in viii
trine, ibid. and g, h.

cent. i. 478.
Bowenson, Leonard, excites a warm con- Brito, Guil, and his character, ii. 340 andi.

test about excommunication in xvi cent. Britons, if converted as early as king Lu-
iii. 335 ; severe doctrine concerning it, cius, i. 125.
336.

Brown, George, Archbishop of Dublin,
Boyle, Robert, his lectures, iii. 418 and y, his zeal in the cause of the Reformation
431 ; his great character, 446.

in Ireland, iii. 96 ; his character, ibid. I;
Brabantinus, an account of bis treatise on Mosheim's mistake here, and Queen
bees, ii. 493.

Mary's cruel designs in Ireland prevent-
Brachmans, veneration paid them by the ed, ibid. m; deprived under her, who

Indians, iii. 390; their title assumed by encourages Popery, that afterward re-
Robert de Nobili, ibid. and 391, i; and ceives under Elizabeth a final and irrc-
by other Jesuits, ibid. and m.

coverable blow to the interest of the
Bradwardine, Archbishop of Canterbury, Romish cause, 97 and n; his singular

an eminent mathematician in xiv cent. account of the genius and spirit of the

ii. 449; his book on Providence, 493. Jesuits, 141, a.
Brahe, Tycho, a celebrated astronomer in

Robert, founder of the Brownists
Xvii cent. iii. 431.

in xvi cent. ii. 292 ; his notions, 293
Breckling, Frederick, his uncharitable wri. and u; renounces his separation from

tings, and character, iv, 62 and li. the church of England, 294.
Bredenberg, John, a collegiate, defends Brownists, a sect of Puritans, iii.292; their

the doctrine of Spinoza, in svii cent. sentiments on church government, 293
iv. 176; debate between him and Cui. and u; retire into the Netherlands, 294;
per concerning the use of reason in rc their fate on their founder's renouncing
ligious matters, ibid. and z.

his separation, ibid. r and y; doctrine
Bremen, republic of, embraces Calvin's and discipline censured, iv. 103.

doctrine and institutions, iii. 280 and b. Brulifer, an eminent scholastic writer in
Brethren and sisters of the Free Spirit, a xv cent. ii. 549.

sect in xiii cent. ii. 423, 429, and r, s; Bruno, attempts with Boniface the con-
various names and singular behaviour, version of the Prussians, ii. 121; is
ibid. and t; dangerous and impious con massacred, with his colleague and other
clusion drawn by them from their mys followers, ibid.
tic theology, 430, 431; sentences from founder of the Carthusians in xi
some more secret books belonging to cent. ii. 189, h.
them, ibid. and w; some among them two of that name, ii. 194.

Bruno, Jordano, a supposed infidel in xvi Cælestius, bis doctrine of original sin one
cent. iii. 119.

main source of Pelagianism, i. 391 ; ac-
Bruys, Peter, attempts to reform the abuses count of, ibid. g.

and superstition of his times, and is Cæsarius of Arles, his works, i. 417, 423,
charged with fanaticism, ii. 311, founder 450.
of the Petrobrussians, ibid. is burnt, Cajetan, Cardinal, his conference at Augs-
ibid. some of his tenets, ibid.

burg with Luther on the nature and er.
Bryennius, Nicephorus, an eminent his. tent of indulgences, iii. 30; insolent
torian in xii cent. ii. 246.

behaviour, and fruitless issue of the de-
Josephus, bis works, ii. 546. bate, 31 and r; absurd expression con-
Bucer, Martin, endeavours to.bring about cerning Christ's blood, 33 and x; cha-

a reconciliation between the Reformed racter of his exposition of the Bible,
and the Lutherans, iii. 267 ; bow defeat 160.
ed, 263; his attempts to modify the Cainites, an account of their tenets, i. 185.
doctrine of the Swiss church to that of Callistus, Nicephorus, his character and
Luther, and how defeated, 274.

works, ii. 446, 487.
Budneians, a sect of Socinians, their doc- Calixtines, in Bohemia, their rise in xv

trine, iii. 363; their founder, with his cent. ii. 553; four demands, ibid.
character and sentiments, 379, 380 ; Calixtus, George, his zeal for reconciling
who is excommunicated, but readmit the Protestants and Catholics in xvii
ted, ibid. and followed by William Da. cent. iii. 472; as also the Lutherans and

vides, Francken, and others, ibid. Reformed, iv. 13; his peculiar method
Bugenhagius, draws up a form of religious and form of theology, 27; system of

government and doctrine, according to moral theology, 29; author of Syncre-
the principles of the Reformation, for tism, and character, 31 ; opposed by
the Danes, iii. 65; the salutary effect of whom, ibid. bis death, 33 and d; doc-
this work in perfecting the Reformation trine condemned, and creed drawn up
in Denmark, ibid. and u.

against it by the Lutheran doctors, ibid.
Jobn, his Harmonies of the opinions, 35 and f; his real design, ibid.
Evangelists, üi. 224.

sub fin. not. f ; two great principles,
Bullinger, his character, iii. 310; writings, with debates carried on with the doctors
319.

of Rintelen, Coningsberg, 36; and Jena,
Bulgarians, converted to Christianity in 37 ; the candid examination of Glas-
ix cent. ii. 4.

.sius on this occasion, ibid. and k.
Burchard, Bishop of Worms, character of

- Frederic Ulric, opposes the
his Decreta, written in x cent. ii. 105. creed of the Lutheran doctors against
Burckhard, Francis, writes against the Syncretism, iv. 34.
treaty of Passau, iji. 215.

– II. Pope, his great character, ii.
Burg, Gibbon de, his pacificatory attempts 261 ; disputes concerning investitures
in xviïi cent. iii. 469 and s.

subside by his prudence, ibid.
Burgundians, spontaneously embrace

III. institutes in xv cent. the fes-
Christianity, i. 334; the cause to which tival of the Transfiguration, ii. 562.
this is imputed, ibid. inclined to Arian- Calovius, a Lutheran writer in xvii cent.
ism, ibid.

iv, 26; attacks Calixtus, 32 ; his ma-
Bulæus, Walter, the use of his works, ii. lignity against the disciples of Calixtus,
450 ; his character, 488.

even after his death, 33.
Bus, Cæsar de, founder of the order of the Calvin, John, a short character of him, iii.

fathers of the Christian doctrine in xvi 68 and a, b; facilitated a reconciliation
cent. iii. 151.

of the Reformed and Lutherans, 268,
Buscherus, Statius, opposes the pacific 269 and g; error here, 269; set on foot

projects of Calixtus in xvii cent. iv. 31 ; the controversy about predestination,
the conduct of the latter upon this occa 270; his opinion, and that of the ancient
sion, 32; an account of the Crypto Pa Helvetic doctors, ibid. the former, pro-
pismus of Buscherus, ibid.

pagated with discord, carried to the
с

greatest height, 271, founder of the

Reformed churcb, 274 and'o; his grand
Cabasilas, Nicholas, an eminent mathema views how in part executed, ibid. 275,
tician in xiv cent. ii. 447.

276 and p; doctrine and discipline alter-
Nilus, his character, ii. 448. ed from ibat of Zuingle in three points,
Cabballa, the source of many errors among

ibid. first, the power of the magistrate,
the Jews, i. 50; derived from the Orien. ibid. second, the eucharist, little differ-
tal philosophy, ibid. much taught and ent from the Lutherans, though much
admired by the Jews, 82.

from Zuingle, 277, 278 and 9, r; dif-
Cæcilianus, Bishop of Carthage, condemn ferent from the Romanists, ibid. third,

ed in ir cent, i. 309; the reasons alleged in God's absolute decree, ibid. his
for it, ibid. meets with a violent oppo changes not approved or received by all
sition from Donatus, ibid, and e.

the Reformed, 278, 279; gains ground

in Germany, 279; and in France, 281; Canons, regular, their useful lives and
in Scotiand by Knox, and in England, manners in xii cent. ii. 275; contest
282 ; his system made the public rule with the monks about pre-eminence,
of faith in the latter place under Edward 276.
VI. 233; his system adopted in the Ne Roman, their luxurious lives, üü.
therlands, 295; bis rigid discipline, and 146.
resolution in establishing it, and the dan- Cantacuzenus, John, bis history of his own
gers he is thereupon exposed to, 307, times, and confutation of the Mahome-
308 and d; his interpretation of the tan law, ii. 487.
precepts of Aristotle, 309; Commen. Cantipratensis, Thomas, his character, ü.
tary, and why sharply censured, 310;

50.
Institutes of the Christian religion, 312; Capistran, John, his character, ii. 549;
Practical divinity, or life and manners eminent for his defence of papal autho-
of a true Christian, ibid. contest with rity, ibid.
the spiritual libertines, 313; with those Capito, Robert, an account of, ii. 341, 400
of Geneva, 314; disputes with Castalio, and i ; his commentaries on Dionysius,
315; with Bolsec, 316; with Ochinus, 410.
317; puts Servetus to death, 356; bis Cappel, Lewis, charged with making im-
method of interpreting Scripture scru prudent and base concessions, through
pulously followed by the members of a desire of diminishing the prejudices or
the Reformed church, iv. 72.

resentment of the Papists against the
Calvinists, secret, favourers of, in Saxony, Protestants in xvii cent. iv. 86; the

iii. 250 ; whence called Crypto-Calvin voluminous and elaborate work under-
ists, 252 ; attempts to spread their doc taken by him, what, ibid. 9, 7, and s;
trine, 257; and consequences, with the zealously opposed, ibid. the churches
death of Crellius, their chief patron, of Switzerland alarmed at his opinions,
259.

and the event, iv. 125.
Camaldoliles, a monastic order, their rise Capreolus, John, his character, ii. 548.

in xi cent. ii. 186 ; founder Romuald, Capuchins, their origin in xvi cent. and
whose followers are divided into two founder, iii. 147, 148 and i, k; envy
classes, the Cænobites, and the Ere against them, and why so called, ibid.
mites, ibid. and z.

and m, n; banished Venice in xvit cent.
Camateurs, Andronicus, his character, ii. iii. 483; but recalled, 484, a.
281.

Caputiati, a sect of fanatics in xii cent. ii.
Cambalu, now Pekin in China, erected by 320.

Clement V. into an archbishopric in Caracalla, Emperor, bis lenity to the
xiv cent. ü. 442.

Christians, i. 192.
Camerarius, Joachim, a promoter of uni- Cardan, a philosopher in xvi cent. iii. 122;

versal learning, and his character, iii. his character, ibid. n.
219; his Commentary on the New Tes. Cardinals, the right of electing to the see
tament, 224.

of Rome vested in them by Nicholas II.
Cameron, John, his reconciling doctrine in xi cent. ji. 150 and e; their origia
and endeavours, iii. 83.

and rights, 152 and h, i ; divided into
Campanella, a philosopher in xvi cent. iii. two classes of Cardinal Bishops and
123 ; his character, ibid. p.

Cardinal Clerks, 153; and the meaning
Campanus, his heretical notions, iii. 355 of these terms, 154 and n; their college
and a.

augmented by Alexander III. 155.
Canon, of Scripture, supposed to be fixed

in Rome, their number, iii. 126;
about ii cent. i. 93; and reasons for what incapable of being elected to the
this supposition, ibid.

see of Rome, 127 and b.
Canons, a religious order, their origin in Cario, an eminent historian among the

viii cent. i. 503; their founder Chrode Lutherans, iii. 218.
gangus, ibid. and h; encouraged by Carolostadt, his intemperate zeal and
Lewis the Meek, ii. 27; who orders a warm debates with Luther, iii. 232;
new rule to be drawn up for their ob excites a tumult at Wittemberg, ibid.
servance, which is condemned, and in and g; leaves Wittemberg, and opposes
stitutes the first Canonesses, 23 and h; the sentiments of Luther concerning
the author of this rule, ibid. partiality the Eucbarist, ibid. and h; propagates
of their historians, ibid. i ; degenerate his doctrine in Switzerlnnd, 233; fa-
from their primitive purity, 29; cor vourable disposition toward the Ana-
ruption among them in xi cent. 191 ; baptists, and enthusiastical teachers,
reformation attempted, and new laws ibid. charged with fanaticism, ibid. and i.
made, ibid. distinction into regular and Carmelites, a monastic order, their rise in
secular, 192; why called Regular ca. xii cent. ii. 279; founded by Albert,
nons of St. Augustin, ibid. and p; in patriarch of Jerusalem, ibid. their rule
troduction into England, ibid.

of discipline, ibid. and t; unwarrant-

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