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Anastasius, how the cause of the Nestorian rise in xvii cent. and pernicious tenets,

controversy, i. 377; bis sentiments ex iv. 107, 108 and 2,4, b.
plained by Nestorius, although keenly Antioch, Patriarch of, his jurisdiction in iv
opposed, yet gain ground, 378.

cent. i. 275; the extent of his power in
of Sinai, bis writings, an ac. xvi cent. iii. 182, 0; four bishops claim
couot of, i. 416, 421 and e.

the title, ibid. p.
the Emperor attached to the Antiochus, a monk of Seba, bis character,
Acephali, protects them, i. 434.

i. 455; and work, or Pandect of the
of Palestine, author of some Holy Scriptures, 459.
tracts against the Jews in vii cent. i. Antonines, their characters, i. 123.
516,

Antoninus, Marcus, listens to calumnies,
an bistorian in ix cent. ii. 14.

aud persecutes the Christians, i. 132;
Anchialus, patriarch of Constantinople, an many apologies published, 133; false

eminent patron of letters in xii cent. ii. witnesses suborned by his judges against
246 and a; seems to have been attached the Christians, ib. his partiality to the

to the Aristotelian philosophy, ibid. Stoics, and its effects upon learning,
Andræas, Antonius, a Latin writer in xiv 136 ; an ornament to the Stoics, 137.
cent. ij. 488.

Pius, persecution under him,
Andreæ, James, employed in reconciling i. 132; his edict in favour of the Cbris-

the Lutheran Doctors, iii. 249. See tians, ibid. and x.
Form of Concord, 282, &c.

Antonins, Paulus, endeavours to correct
Andrew, Bishop of Crete, his homilies the abuses among the clergy in xvii
considered as spurious, i. 456.

eent. iv. 39.
Andronicus, Emperor of Greece, forbids Antony forms in Egypt the solitary Monks

all controversies concerning speculative into a body, i. 290; the rapid progress
points of theology in xii cent. ii. 300 of this order in the East, and maxims of
and b.

their pliilosophy, which seduced the
Angeloine, a monk of Lysicus, an acute Christians, ibid. the state of this order

but fantastic writer in ix cent. ii. 40 and in xi cent. ii. 190.
r his expositions, ibid.

Apochryphal and spurious writings, many
Angers, Bishops of, refuse to subscribe the in i cent. i. 94 and r.
declaration against the Jansenists, and

- books, reading of them in the
the consequence, iii. 332.

church disliked by the Puritans, iii. 289.
Anglo-Saxons, oppress the Christians, i. Apollinarian heresy, its rise, i. 323; au-

340 ; some few converted by Augustin thor and tenets maintained by him, ib.
the Monk, 398; aq universal conversion the consequences deduced from the
among them in vii cent. i. 440 ; the sentiments of Apollinaris seem unjust,
causes of this conversion considered, 324 and c; its fate, ibid. and d.
ibid.

Apollonius Tyanneus, comparison of Christ
Anhalt, princes of, embrace Calvinism, and him pernicious, i. 260.
and the reason, iii. 299 and n.

- his controversies about the pow.
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, im er of the magistrate in church affairs,

proves the science of Logic, ii. 141 ; iv. 114; occasions a flaming dispute
inventor of the famous argumeni as between Spanheim nnd Vænder Wayen,
cribed to Des Cartes, 142; his character ibid.
and works, ibid. 0, and 194, the first Apologies, many, produced in defence of
who composed a system of divinity, Christianity in ii cent. i. 153.
200 ; eminent for his moral treatises, Apostles of Christ, why limited to twelve,
201, and controversial writings, ibid. i. 56 ; the success of their ministry, af-

-of Laon, bis character, ii. 282, 289. ter the effusion of the Holy Ghost, 59;

- of Havelsberg, strenuous advocate the election of one in the room of Judas,
for the Latins against the Greeks in xii 60; rounded many churches, 62 ; sables
cent. ii. 298.

related of them, ib. their authority and
Ausgar, converts the Swedes in ix cent. office, 85; left the external form of the

ii. 4; is created archbishop of Ham-. church undetermined, ib. aud z; they
burgh, ibid. founder of the Cimbrian, and their disciples the principal writers,

Danish, and Swedish churches, ibid. a. 93; the creed, by whom composed, 99
Anthropomorphiles, a sect in x cent. ii. and k, 1; instituted many rites, 104.

116; why encouraged and admired, 117. account of a sect in xiii cent. ii.
Antichrist, ensigns of, what so called by 437 ; made no alterations in the doctri-
the Puritans, ii. 291.

nal part of the public religion, ib. their
Antidico-Marianites, a sect in iv cent. i. leaders and extirpation, 438 and h; the
330; their tenets, ibid.

credit given by them to the predictions
Antinomians, their rise among the Luther- I of the Abbot Joachim, 439.

ans in xvi cent. iii. 236 ; suppression by Apostolic Fathers, their general character,
Luther, ibid. tenets, 161; English, their į. 97 and h.

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Apostolics, a sect. in xii cent. ij. 320; the particularly in the West, ibid. under
remarkable purity of their lives, ibid. Valens, a friend to the Arians, ibid. un-
some peculiarities among them deserve der Gratian and Theodosius the Great,
censure, ibid.

wbo favour the Nicenians, ibid. excess-
Apostoolians, an inferior sect of Anabap es on both sides, ibid. various sects of
tists or Mennonites in xvii cent. iv. 167; it which may be reduced to three classes,
their founder Samuel Apostool, who ibid. this division detrimental to the
opposes Galen Haan, with an account Arians, 322 ; is encouraged by the Van-

of his controversy and tenets, ibid. dals in Africa, i. 374; its state in vi
Appellants, great number of them in cent. 432, 433; encouraged by the

France, and why so called, iv. 193 and h. Lombards in vii cent. i. 464.
Aquinas, Thomas, a very powerful advo- Arians, two eminent writers among them

cate for the philosophy of Aristotle, and in xvii cent. iv. 173 and w; to whom
gives a new translation of his works, ii. the denomination of Arian is applicable,
344 and c; called the Angelic Doctor, ib. most eminent patrons in xviii cent.
ibid. his character, 400 and g; method iv. 210; bad consequences of Arianism,
of explaining the Scriptures, 405 ; or. ibid. z; points of its doctrine adopted
thodoxy questioned, 409; famous sum, by Mr. Whiston, and consequences, 211
what, 411; polemic work against the sub z ;. controversy occasioned by Dr.
Gentiles, 412 ; several of his doctrines Clarke's opinions concerning the Trinity,
opposed by John Duns Scotus, 491; and by whom opposed, ibid, sub z; no
hence the origin of the sect of the end to be gained by these disputes, with
Thomists, 492.

Dr. Stillingfleet's excellent admonition
Arabian philosophers, their tenets, and to the disputants, 213 sub z.

reason of their name, i. 240; confuted Aristotelian, philosophy, admired by the
by Origen, abandon their erroneous sen Nestorians in vi cent. i. 409; its pro-
timents, and return to the church, ibid. gress in viii cent. 486; the persons to
found schools in Spain and Italy in 1 whom its success was due, ibid. taught
cent. ii. 99; and source of knowledge by the reformed church in xvi cent. ii.
among the Europeans, ibid. and 138; 311; introduced into theology, and bad
authors of divination and astrology in consequence, ibid. and n; its state in
the West, ibid. many of their works xvii cent. 436.
translated into Latin in xii cent. 1.. 255 Aristotelians, poor subterfuge used by them
and u.

before the inquisition in xv cent. ii. 516.
Arabians, in Spain, converted in xiii cent. Aristotle, his notions of God and the bu-

ii. 331 ; but expelled by the order of man soul, i. 40; bas many admirers in
Pope Clement IV. 332 and y.

xiii cent. and the prejudice done by
Arabs, converted by Origen in iii cent. i. them to Christianity, ii. 333 and a; the
195.

reading of his works condemned by the
Arator, his works and character, i. 418. Bishops at Paris, 435; if preferable to
Arbricelles, Robert, founds a monastery at Plato, debated xv cent. 514 and a.

Fontevraud in xii cent. ii. 276 ; one Arius, opposes the opinions of Alexander
singularity in his rule, 277; charge on the second person of the Triuity, i.
against him, ibid. and p; some nuns in 315; expelled from the church, 316;
England, ibid. and p.

defends his opinions with success, ibid.
Archbishops, the extent of their authority brings over Eusebius Bishop of Nico-
in iv cent, i. 271.

media to his cause, ibid. Constantine,
Archelaus, succeeds his father Herod in after fruitless admonitions, calls a coun-

the kingdom of Judea ; is infamous for cil at Nice, at which Arius is condemn-
his vices, and dethroned, i. 43.

ed, and Christ is declared consubstan-
Ardaus, excommunicated for censuring tial, ib. recalled from exiie, 318 and x;

the licentious clergy in iv cent, and is received into the church, and invited
forms a sect, i. 328; his principles im to Constantinople, 319; is reinstrated
bibed by the Goths, ibid. errors falsely with his followers in their privileges, but
imputed to him, ibid.

is denied a place among the presbyters
Arianism, its rise in iv cent, i. 315 and m; by the people of Alexandria, ib. dics a

toe tenets held by its author, 316; its miserable death, with some reflections
progress before the first Nicene council, on the manner, 320 and y.
in which the sentiments of its founder Armagh, the sec of, erected by Patrick in
are condemned, 317 ; its history after • v cent. i. 336 and r.
this time, 315; state under the sons of

Richard of, attacks the Mendi-
Constantine, 320 ; Constantius forces cants in xiv cent. ii. 467.
proselytes, ibid. under Julian, who fa- Armenia, Great and Less, Christianity
vours neither side, 321 ; under Jovian, established there in iv cent. i. 261 ; a
a defender of the Nicenians, ib. under church founded at, by Gregory the En-
Valentinian, an enemy to the Arians, lightener, ibid.

Armenians, an account of, in xvi cent. iv. Arnold, Godfrey, disturbs the Lutheran

193 and q; have three patriarchs, ibid. church, and his character, iv. 47; his
and r, s; their titular ones, 194 and t; ecclesiastical history censured, ibid. his
their state in xvii cent. iii. 562 ; coun partiality in favour of beretics, which
try laid waste by Abbas the Great, he quitted when old, 48 and o.
King of Persia, ibid. and his generous Arsenius, bis synopsis of the Greek canon
behaviour toward them, ibid. the advan. law, in xiii cent. ii. 398.
tages they received from the settlement Artemon, bis tenets, i. 187; uncertainty
of a great number of Armenians in dif about these, ibid.
ferent parts of Europe, ibid. and z; re- Arts, seren, the wretched manner of
ligious books printed for their use in teaching them in viii cent. i. 488; di-
Europe, particularly in Holland and vided into the Trivium and Quadrivium,
England, ibid.

ibid. the works of Cassiodore and Boe-
Arminianism, its rise and progress in xvii thius recommended for further progress,

cent. iv. 129. See Church Arminian, 469.
127.

Ascetics, their rise and principles, i. 157 ;
Arminians, their leading maxim adopted why certain Christians became of this

by the Lutherans in xviii cent. iv. 25; sect, 158; the progress of this disci-
their rise and scbism in this cent. 78;

pline, 159.
condemned at the synod of Dort, ibid. Asculanus, Ceccus, a famous philosopher
the effects of this schism in Holland, 79; in xvi cent. ii. 451; imprudently min-
gain ground in England through Arche gles astrology with bis philosophy, ibid.
bishop Laud, 80; favoured in France, is accused of dealing with infernal spi-
Brandenberg, Bremen, and Geneva, ib. rits, and burnt by the inquisitors at
the further progress of this sect, See Florence, 452 and a.
Church Arminian, 127.

Asia, Protestant missions there in xvi cent.
Arminius, James, bis tenets, and by whom iii. 409 ; English and Dutch colonies,

opposed, with the decision of the synod 410.
of Dort, iv. 78; founder of the Arminjan Asiatic, Gnostic, sect in ii cent, and tenets,
church, 127 ; his great character and an account of, i. 173.
account of, ibid. prosesses publicly his Asinus, John Pungens, substitutes consub-
opinions about predestination and stantiation instead of transubstantiation
grace, &c. in opposition to those of in xiii cent. ii. 415.
Calvin, 129; two favourable circum- Astesanus, his character, ii. 489, 493.
stances for him, ibid. by whom opposed Astrog, synods held there in xvi cent. iii.
and controversy thereapon, with his 297 ; their happy effects, ibid.
death, ibid, and c; progress of bis sect Astrology, mixed with philosophy, consi-
after his death, 129.

dered as magic in xiv cent. ii. 451.
Arnaud, his dispute with the Jesuits con- Asylum, right of, contest about, between

cerning a frequent approach to the holy Pope Innocent XI. and Lewis XIV. iii.
communion, iii. 172 and c; improves

487 and l.
and illustrates the doctrine of Des Car. Athanaric, King of the Goths, persecutes
tes, 507 and 0; a patron of the Janse the Christian Goths in iv cent. i. 264.
nists, 525; flies into Holland, 533; and Athanasius, account of him and his works,
the consequences to the Jesuits, ibid. j. 277 and u; refuses to restore Arius,
and w; his dispute with Claude con 319; is deposed by the council of Tyre,
cerning transubstantiation, 555.

and banisbed into Gaul, ibid.
Arndt, a moral writer in xvii cent. iv. 29; Atheists, sew, if any, to be met with in

debates relating to, 56 ; his good cha xviii cent. iv. 188; and those chiefly fol-
racter and works, particularly his True lowers of Spinoza, ibid.
Christianity, 57 ; is censured by some, Athenagorus, an excellent writer in ii cent.
and by whom defended, ibid. a Para i. 148.
celsist, ibid.

Atto, Bishop of Vercelli, bis works useful,
Arnobius, character of his polemic works in describing the genius of the people
against the Gentiles, in iii cent. i. 213. in x cent. ii. 104.

the younger, an account of, i. Ave Maria, added to the prayers in xis
356.

cent. ij. 497.
Arnold, of Brescia, account of him and his Augsburg, an account of the conference

sect in xii cent. ii. 313; is justly cen held at, between Luther and Cajetan,
sured for the violent impetuosity of his in xvi ccnt. iii. 30; and its issue, 31 and
temper, but discovered in his character r; the famous diet held by Charles V.
several things worthy of esteem, 314; Emperor, 67 ; famous confession made
is greatly admired, and his followers ljy the Protestants, 71 and c; its style
called Arnoldists, ibid.

justly admired, ibid. its matter supplied
of Villa Nova, his extensive by Luther, but received its form from
learning, ii. 315; unjust punishment, ib. Melancthon, ibid. contains twenty-eight
VOL. IV.

51

chapters, and to what they reser, ibid. Bacon, Lord Verulam, bis cöaractér, iii.
and d, e; a refutation of it attempted 430 and 2.
by the Roman Catholics, ibid. and Me- Bairs, his disputes about grace in xvi
lancthon's answer to it, which is called, cent. iii. 174; is accused and condemn-
A Defence of the Confession of Augs ed with his unjust treatment, 175 and f.
burg, 72 ; three methods proposed for Balbi, John, promotes the study of the
terminating these religious dissensions, Greek language in xiii cent. ii. 341.
ibid. conferences judged the most effec- Balduin, his controversy concerning the
tual way to put a period to them, and merits of Christ, iv. 55,
why, 73 and f; but proved to be ines. Baldus, his character, ii. 449.
sectual, ibid. the severe decree against Balsamon, Theodorus, bis erudition and
the reformers, 74 and g; religious peace diligence in explaining the civil and
concluded at the second diet held here, ecclesiastical laws of the Greeks in xii
92; acts favourable to the Protestants cent. ii. 281 and b.
passed, ibid. remarks upon, and proofs Bancron, his sermon at Paul's Cross, on
of the ignorance and superstition of the divine right of Bishops, exasperates
the times, ibid. consession of, and its their contest with the Puritans, and the
desence, 208; and interpolations by effects, iji. 237, 268.

Melancthon, ibid. a ; its associates, 295. Baptism, not to be considered as a mere
Augustin, Bishop of Hippo, his character, ceremony, i. 104; the manner of cele-

i. 279, 280, andl; admired for his di bration in i cent. 107.
dactic writings, 256; bis success against

in iv cent. by the Bishop with
the Donatists, 313; suppresses Pelagi lighted tapers, and on the vigils of
anism, i. 392 ; opposes the Predestina Easter and Whitsuntide, i. 306.
rians, 395.

Baptismal fonts, introduced into the por-
a Benedictine monk, sent into ches of churches, when, i. 306.
Britain in vi cent. i. 398 and é ; converts Baptists, general, Arminian, their doc-
many Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, ib. • trine, iii. 348; in what they agree with

St. Monks of, their rise in xüi the particular Baptists, 349.
cent. and founder, ii. 369.

particular, Calvinistical, their
Augustus, base methods used by bim to tenets, iii. 349; settle in London, ibid.
obtain power, i. 29.

Baradæus, Jacob, restores the Monopky-
Avignon, Popes remove thither their resi. sites in vi cent. i. 434 ; his dexterity

dence in xiv cent. ii. 455 and h; their and diligence, 435; is acknowledged
power diminished, 456; invent new their second founder, and hence they
schemes to acquire riches, ibid.

are called Jacobites, ibid.
Aurelian, state of the church under lim Barbarians, western, persecute the Chris-

tolerable, i. 200; a dreadful persecution tians in x cent. ij. 54.
prevented by his death, ibid.

Barcepha, Moses, his great character, ii.
Aureolus, Peter, an account of, ii. 488.

29 and p.
Ausonius, his character as a poet, i. 266. Barcochebas, assumes the name of the
Austria, commotions in, against the Pro Messiah, i. 129; a great enemy to the

testants, in xvii cent. iii. 455 and p. Christians, 131 and 1.
Authbert, the success of his ministry in Bardesanes, founder of a sect of heretics

Jutland and Cimbria in ix cent. ii. 4; in ii cent. i. 176; the doctrine he taught,
converts the Swedes, ibid.

177.
Nutherius, Bishop of Bethlehem, founds Barlaam, his book of ethics shows the au-

the congregation of the Holy Sacra thor to be inclined to Stoicism, ii. 447 ;
ment in xvii cent. ii. 385.

a champion for the Greeks against the
Authpert, Ambrose, his character, i. 507; Latins in xiv cert. 487, 494; finds fault

his Commentary on the Revelations, with some Greek monks, 497; the names
ibid. his lives of the saints, 515.

he gives them, who are defended by
Autun, Honorius os, his character and Gregory Palamas, 498; is condemned

works, ii. 283; a polemic writer, 299. by a council at Constantinople, ibid.
Auxerre, William of, his systematic divi- Barnabas, the epistle attributed to him,
nity, an account of, ii. 283.

supposed to be spurious, i. 97.
Awerri, in Africa, King of, converted to Barnabites, regular clerks of St. Paul,

Christianity by the Capuchins in xvii founded in xvi cent. and by whom, iii.
cent. iii. 411.

150 ; soon deviate from their first rule
B

and their office, ibid. and 1.

Baronius, Cesar, his Annals, an account
Bacon, John, an account of, ii. 488.

of, iii. 152 and z; confutations of them,
Roger, his great character, ii. 341 ibid. and a
and q; and 400, k; his extensive pro- Barre, Nicholas, forms the Pietists into a
gress in the sciences, 345 and d, e; society in xvii cent, iii. 503.
unjust imprisonment, ibid.

Bartolus, his character, ii. 449.

Barrow, Isaac, his great zeal for natural fin. not. s ; retires into France, and reknowledge, iii. 445.

turns, 269; is assassinated in his own Barsumas, of Nisibis, a zealous promoter chapel, ibid. reasons to clear Henry II. of Nestorianism, i. 391.

of England from consenting to his murAbbot, brought the Eutychian der, and the punishment inflicted on the opinions into Syria and Armenia in v assassins, ibid. t; is enrolled among cent. i. 386, 387; but the former rejects the most eminent saints, 270 and u. them, ibid. and h.

Bede, venerable, bis character, i. 507 and Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea, account of him 11; exposition of St. Paul's epistles and and his works, i. 277 and w.

Samuel, 509 ; moral treatises, 515. the council held at, in xv cent. ii. Beghards, see Beguines, the origin of this 532 ; the designs of it, and vigorous pro denomination, ii. 392 and r; differed secutions taken at it, alarm the Roman from the Fratricelli in what, 393; conpontiff, 533 and h, i; the decrees, and sidered as seculars and laymen, 395 and acts, of it, 534; the attempts of Euge s; the miseries they suffer under Charles nius IV. to dissolve it ineffectual, 535; IV. in Germany, 481, 482 ; but not exdepose Eugenius, and elect another tirpated, ibid. named Felix V. ibid. friars at Lausanne Beghards, Belgic and German, their oriratify Felix's abdication, and confirm gin, ii. 395 and u, 396 and 10; first socithe election of Nicholas, 538.

ety when and by whom formed, ibid. Basilides, chief of the Egyptian Gnostics, and x; corrupted by the brethren of the

i. 179 ; gems supposed to come from free spirit in xiv cent. 500 ; a division him, ibid. andr; enormous errors of his of this sect, 501, c; the persecution of system, 180; falsely charged with de them and tragical conclusion, 502, 503, nying the reality of Christ's body, ibid. and h. s; his moral doctrine, 181 ; his errors,

-Schwestriones, in xv cent. iji. and how led into an enormous one, ib. 449; their leading principle, ibid. the and t.

miseries they suffer from the inquisition, Basilius, of Seleucia, writes against the ibid. accounts of them by many writers Jews in v cent. i. 362.

imperfect, ibid. h. -the Macedonian, under bim the

by corruption called Picards, ii. Sclavonians and Russians are convert 563; their horrible tenets, 564 ; severe ed in ix cent. ij. 5; an inaccurate ac treatment from Ziska, ibid. and i; callcount of the latter by Lequien, 6, k. ed Adamites, 565; this name afterward

- the founder of an heretical sect, applied to the Hussites, ibid. in xii cent. ii. 306 ; is condemned, and Beguines, see Beghards, how different from burnt at Constantinople, ibid. his tenets the Belgic and German, ii. 395. resemble the ancient Gnostics and Ma- Behmen, Jacob, one of the Rosecrucian nichæans, ibid, denies the reality of brethren, iii. 437 ; bis chimerical noChrist's body, and a future resurrection, tions and followers, iv. 59; works, ibid. ibid.

b. Bassi, Matthew de, zealous in attempting Believers, who obtained this name in the

to reform the Franciscans in xvi cent. earliest period of the Christian church, iv. 147 and i, k; founder of the order i. 88; how distinguished from Catechu

of the Capuchins, ibid. Bayle, a skeptical philosopher in xvii cent. Bellarmine, Robert, an eminent defender iii. 448 and y.

of the Romish church in xvi. cent iii. Beauvoir, account of the letters which 164; his character, ibid. is censured by

passed between him and archbishop the church of Rome, ibid. and u. Wake, relative to their correspondence Bellator, his character as a commentator, with the doctors of the Sorbonne, con i. 420 ; translates the works of Origen, cerning the union project, iv. 229; au. 425.

thentic copies of them, 252. See Wake. Bello-visu, Armand de, an account of, ii. Becker, Balthaser, account of, iii. 445 ; his 400.

peculiar sentiments, and contest occa. Bembo, Peter, Cardinal, a supposed infidel sioned by them, iv. 122 ; work entitled writer in xyi cent. iij. 119. The World bewitched, ibid. argument Benedict, of Nursia, founder of an order of against the being of spirits unsatisfacto: monks in vicent. i. 414 ; his works, 417. ry, ibid. u; is opposed, and tumults Abbot of Aniane, employed by consequent thereupon, 123; is deposed Lewis the Meek, to reform the practifrom his pastoral office, and continues ces of the monks in ix cent. ii. 27; rein the same sentiments to his death, stores the monastic discipline, ib. subibid. and u.

jects the various monastic orders to that Beckel, archbishop of Canterbury, sub of Benedict of Mount Cassin, ibid. his

scribes, and afterward rejects, the Con. discipline at first admired, soon destitution, of Clarendon, ii. 267, 268 sub clines, ibid.

mens, 99.

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