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lished other translations in English. I have already cited his version of Naogeorgus's hexametrical poem on ANT1 ch RIST, or the PA PAL Dom INI on, printed at London in 1570, and dedicated to his chief patron fir William Cecill". The dedication is dated from Staples-inn, where he was a student. At the end of the book, is his version of the same author's SPIRITUAL AGRICULTURE, dedicated to queen Elisabeth ". Thomas Naogeorgus, a German, whose real name is Kirchmaier, was one of the many moral or rather theological Latin poets produced by the reformation *. Googe also translated and enlarged Conrade Heresbach's treatise on agriculture, gardening, orchards, cattle, and domestic fowls'. This version was printed in 1577, and dedicated from Kingston to fir William Fiztwilliams “. Among Crynes's curious books in the Bodleian at Oxford , is Googe's translation from the Spanish of Lopez de Mendoza's PR over Bes, dedicated to Cecill, which I have never seen elsewhere, printed at London by R. Watkins in 1579°. In this book the old Spanish paraphrast mentions Boccace's THESE ID “. But it was not only to these later and degenerate classics, and to modern tracts, that Googe's industry was confined. He also translated into English what he called Aristotle's TABLE of The TEN CATEGORIES ", that capital example of ingenious but useless subtlety, of method which cannot be applied to pračtice, and of that affectation of unnecessary deduction and frivolous investigation, which charaćterises the philosophy of the Greeks, and which is conspicuous not only in the demonstrations of Euclid, but in the Socratic disputations recorded by Xenophon. The solid fimplicity of common sense would have been much less subječt to circumlocution, embarrassment, and ambiguity. We do not want to be told by a chain of proofs, that two and two make four. This specific chara&ter of the schools of the Greeks, is perhaps to be traced backwards to the loquacity, the love of paradox, and the fondness for argumentative discourse, so peculiar to their nation. Even the good sense of Epictetus was not proof against this captious phrenzy. What patience can endure the solemn quibbles, which mark the stoical conferences of that philosopher preserved by Arrian It is to this spirit, not solely from a principle of invidious malignity, that Tully alludes, where he calls the Greeks, “Homines conten“tionis quam veritatis cupidiores'.” And in another part of the same work he says, that it is a principal and even a national fault of this people, “Quocunque in loco, quoscunque inter “ homines visum est, de rebus aut DIFF IcILLIMI's aut non NE“ cess AR11s, AR GUT iss IME DIs PUT ARE ".” The natural liveliness of the Athenians, heightened by the free politics of a democracy, seems to have tinčtured their conversation with this sort of declamatory disputation, which they frequently practiced under an earnest pretence of discovering the truth, but in reality to indulge their native disposition to debate, to display their abundance of words, and their address of argument, to amuse, surprise, and perplex. Some of Plato's dialogues, professing a profundity of speculation, have much of this talkative humour.

" I suspect there is a former edition for W. Pickering, Lond. 1566, 4to.

" In quarto.

* Kirchmaier fignifies the same in German as his assumed Greek name NAOTEOPTOX, a labourer in the church. He wrote besides, five books of Satires, and two tragedies in Latin. He died in 1578. See “Thoma. Naogeorgii RecNu M pap 1st 1“cu M, cui adjecta sunt quaedam alia ejus“dem argumenti. Basil. 1553.” 8vo. Ibid. 1559. One of his Latin tragedies called HaMAN us, is printed among Oporinus's Dr AM at a Sacra, or plays from the Old Testament, in 1547, many of which are

Latin versions from the vernacular German. See Oporin. DRAM. S. vol. ii. p. 107.

7 In quarto, for Richard Watkins. In the Preface to the first edition, he says,. “For my safety in the vniuerstie, I craue. “ the aid and appeal to the defence of the “famous Christ - college in Cambridge “ whereof I was ons an vnprofitable mem“ber, and [of] the ancient mother of “learned men the New-college in Oxford.”

* Feb. 1, 1577. There were other editions, 1578, 1594. Lond. 4to.

* Cod. CRY Nes, 886.

* Sm. 8vo.

* Fol. 71. a.

* MSS. Coxeter.

useless

* De ORA to Re, Lib. i. Ş. xi. f Ibid. Lib. ii. $. iv.

3 M 2 Beside

Beside these versions of the Greek and Roman poets, and of the antient writers in prose, incidentally mentioned in this review, it will be sufficient to observe here in general, that almost all the Greek and Roman classics appeared in English before the year 16oo. The effect and influence of these translations on our poetry, will be confidered in a future section.

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UT the ardour of translation was not now circumscribed within the bounds of the classics, whether poets, histo

rians, orators, or critics, of Greece and Rome. I have before observed, that with our frequent tours through Italy, and our affectation of Italian manners, about the middle of the fixteenth century, the Italian poets became fashionable, and that this circumstance, for a time at least, gave a new turn to our poetry. The Italian poets, however, were but in few hands ; and a practice of a more popular and general nature, yet still resulting from our communications with Italy, now began to prevail, which produced still greater revolutions. This was the translation of Italian books, chiefly on fićtitious and nar

rative subjećts, into English.

The learned Ascham thought this novelty in our literature too important to be passed over without observation, in his reflections on the course of an ingenuous education. It will be much to our purpose to transcribe what he has said on this subjećt: although I think his arguments are more like the reasonings of a rigid puritan, than of a man of liberal views and true penetration; and that he endeavours to account for the origin, and to state the consequences, of these translations, more in the spirit of an early talvinistic preacher, than as a sensible critic or a polite scholar. “ These be the inchauntments of Circe, brought out of Italie “ to marre mens manners in England : much, by example of “ ill life, but more by precepts of fonde bookes, of late tran“ slated oute of Italian into English, solde in euery shop in “ London, commended by honest titles, the sooner to corrupt “ honest

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* Serious books in divinity, written by the papists. The study of controversial theology flourished at the university of Louvain.

“ MoR TE

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