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Where Furies fight on beds of steele, and heares of crauling snakes, Where Gorgon gremme, where Harpies are, and lothsom limbo lakes, Where most prodigious "vgly things the hollow hell doth hyde, If yet a monster more mishapt, &c.

In the TRoAs, which was first faultily printed in or before 1560 ", afterwards reprinted in 1581 by Newton, he has taken greater liberties. At the end of the chorus after the first act, he has added about fixty verses of his own invention. In the beginning of the second act, he has added a new scene, in which he introduces the spectre of Achilles raised from hell, and demanding the sacrifice of Polyxena. This scene, which is in the oćtave stanza, has much of the air of one of the legends in the MIRRour of MAG1st RATEs. To the chorus of this act, he has subjoined three stanzas. Instead of translating the chorus of the third ačt, which abounds with the hard names of the antient geography, and which would both have puzzled the translator and tired the English reader, he has substituted a new ode. In his preface to the reader, from which he appears to be yet a fellow of All Souls college, he modestly apologises for these licentious innovations, and hopes to be pardoned for his seeming arrogance, in attempting “ to set forth in English this present “ piece of the flowre of all writers Seneca, among so many fine “ wittes, and towardly youth, with which England this day “florisheth".” Our translator Jasper Heywood has several poems extant in the Paradise of Daintie Deuises, published in 1573. He was the son of John Heywood, commonly called the epigrammatist, and born in London. In 1547, at twelve years of age, he was sent to Oxford, and in 1553 elečted fellow of Merton college. But inheriting too large a share of his father's facetious and free disposition, he sometimes in the early part of life indulged his festive vein in extravagancies and indiscretions, for which being threatened with expulsion, he resigned his fellowship . He exercised the office of Christmasprince, or lord of misrule, to the college: and seems to have given offence, by suffering the levities and jocularities of that charaćter to mix with his life and general conversation *. In the year 1558, he was recommended by cardinal Pole, as a polite scholar, an able disputant, and a steady catholic, to fir Thomas Pope founder of Trinity college in the same university, to be put in nomination for a fellowship of that college, then just founded. But this scheme did not take place". He was, however, appointed fellow of All Souls college the same year. Dissatisfied with the change of the national religion, within four years he left England, and became a catholic priest and a Jesuit at Rome, in 1562. Soon afterwards he was placed in the theological chair at Dilling in Switzerland, which he held for seventeen years. At length returning to England, in the capacity of a popish missionary, he was imprisoned, but released by the interest of the earl of Warwick. For the deliverance from so perilous a situation, he complimented the earl in a copy of English verses, two of which, containing a most miserable paronomasy on his own name, almost bad enough to have condemned the writer to another imprisonment, are recorded in Harrington's Epigrams". At length he retired to Naples, where he died in 1597 . He is said to have been an accurate critic in the Hebrew language". His translation of the TRoAs, not of Virgil as it seems, is mentioned in a copy of verses by T. B. prefixed to the first edition, abovementioned, of Studley's AGAME MNoN. He was intimately connected abroad with the biographer Pitts, who has given him rather too partial a panegyric. Thomas Newton, the publisher of all the ten tragedies of Seneca in English, in one volume, as I have already remarked, in 1581 ‘, himself added only one to these versions of Studley, Nevile, Nuce, and Jasper Heywood. This is the The BAIs, probably not written by Seneca, as it so essentially differs in the catastrophe from his OEDIpus. Nor is it likely the same poet should have composed two tragedies on the same subjećt, even with a variation of incidents. It is without the chorus and a fifth act. Newton appears to have made his translation in 1581, and perhaps with a view only of completing the colle&tion. He is more prosaic than most of his fellow-labourers, and seems to have paid the chief attention to perspicuity and fidelity. In the general EPIs TLE DEDICAToRY to fir Thomas Henneage, prefixed to the volume, he says, “I durst not haue geuen the ad“uenture to approch your presence, vpon trust of any singula“ rity, that in this Booke hath vnskilfully dropped out of myne “, owne penne, but that I hoped the perfeótion of others artifi“ciall workmanship that haue trauayled herein, as well as my“selfe, should somewhat couer my nakednesse, and purchase “ my pardon.—Theirs I knowe to be deliuered with fingular “ dexterity: myne, I confesse to be an vnflidge [unfledged] “ nestling, vnable to flye ; an vnnatural abortion, and an vn“ perfect embryon: neyther throughlye laboured at Aristophanes “ and Cleanthes candle, neither yet exactly waighed in Crito“laus his precise ballaunce. Yet this I dare saye, ‘I haue deli“uered myne authors meaning with as much perspicuity as so

* So Milton, on the same subječt, and self in the Metrical PREF Ack to the in the true sense of the word, PAR. L. ii. - THY Estes just mentioned, and says it 625. a was most carelessly printed at the fign of the hand and star. This must have been at the shop of Richard Tottel within

* I have never seen this edition of Temple Bar. 1560 or before, but he speaks of it him- * Fol. 95. a.

— All monstrous, all Prodigious things.


y See Harrington's Epigrams, “Of old a MS. Colle&tan. Fr. Wise. See LIFE

“Haywood's sonnes.” B. ii. 1 oz. of si R. T. Pope.

* Among Wood's papers, there is an * Epic R. lib. iii. Epigr. i. oration De Lic No et foe No, spoken by * AT H. Oxon. i. 290. Heywood's cotemporary and fellow-colle- * H. Morus, Hist. Provinc. AN Gl. gian, David de la Hyde, in commenda- Soc. Jes. Lib. iv. num, 1 1. sub ann. tion of his execution of this office. 1585.


* With these initials, there is a piece b. The English version seems to have proprefixed to Gascoigne's poems, 1579. duced an edition of the original for Man * There is a receipt from Marsh for and Brome, Sept. 6. 1585. Ibid. fol. 205. “Seneca's Tragedies in Englishe.” Jul. z. b. 1581. REGISTR. Station. B. fol. 181. ** meant

“ meane a scholar, out of so meane a stoare, in so smal a time, “ and vpon so short a warning, was well able to performe, &c'.”

Of Thomas Newton, a slender contributor to this volume, yet perhaps the chief instrument of bringing about a general translation of Seneca, and otherwise deserving well of the literature of this period, some notices seem necessary. The first letter of his English THE BAI's is a large capital D. Within it is a shield exhibiting a sable Lion rampant, crossed in argent on the shoulder, and a half moon argent in the dexter corner, I suppose his armorial bearing. In a copartment, towards the head, and under the semicircle, of the letter, are his initials, T. N. He was descended from a respectable family in Cheshire, and was sent while very young, about thirteen years of age, to Trinity college in Oxford". Soon afterwards he went to Queen's college in Cambridge; but returned within a very few years to Oxford, where he was readmitted into Trinity college'. He quickly became famous for the pure elegance of his Latin poetry. Of this he has left a specimen in his Illust RIA All Quot ANGlor UM EN.com 1A, published at London in 1589 °. He is perhaps the first Englishman that wrote Latin elegiacs with a classical clearness and terseness after Leland, the plan of whose EN.com I A and TRoPHAEA he seems to have followed in this little work'. Most of the learned and ingenious men of that age, appear to have courted the favours of this polite and popular encomiast. His chief patron was the unfortunate Robert earl of Essex. I have often incidentally mentioned some of Newton's recommendatory verses, both in English and Latin, prefixed to cotemporary books, according to the mode of that age. One of his earliest philological publications is a NoTABLE Historie of THE SAR AcENs, digested from Curio, in three books, printed at London in 1575". I unavoidably anticipate in remarking here, that he wrote a poem on the death of queen Elisabeth, called “ATRoPoion Delion,” or, “ the Death of “ Delia with the Tears of her funeral. A poetical excusive dis“ course of our late Eliza. By T. N. G. Lond. 1603".” The next year he published a flowery romance, “A plesant new history, “ or a fragrant posie made of three flowers Rosa, Rosalynd, and “ Rosemary, London, 1604 °.” Philips, in his THEATRUM PoETARUM, attributes to Newton, a tragedy in two parts, called TAM BURLAIN THE GREAT, or THE SCYTHIAN SHEPHERD. But this play, printed at London in 1593, was written by Christopher Marloe'. He seems to have been a partisan of the puritans, from his pamphlet of CHRISTIAN FRIENDs HIP, with an Invečfive against dice-play and other profane games, printed at London, 1586*. For some time our author practised physic, and, in

* Dated, “From Butley in Chesshyre Rum, in 1577. He wrote also “ The

“the 24 of Aprill. 1581.”
I am informed by a manuscript note of

Oldys, that Richard Robinson translated

the THE BA 1s. Of this I know no more,

but R. Robinson was a large writer both in

verse and prose. Some of his pieces I have already mentioned. He wrote also * CHR is M.As Recreations of histories “ and moralizations aplied for our solace “ and consolacions,” licenced to T. East, Dec. 5, 1576. Regist R. Station. B. fol. 136. b. And, in 1569, is entered to Binneman, “The ruefull tragedy of He“midos, &c. by Richard Robinson.” Rec 1st R. A. fol. 190. a. And, to T. Dawson in 1579, Aug. 26, “The Vineyard “ of Vertue a booke gathered by R. Ro“binson.” Regist R. B. fol. 163. a. He was a citizen of London. The reader recollects his English Gesta Roman o

“ avncient order, societie, and vnitie lau“dable, of Prince Art Hu Re, and his “knightly armory of the Round ta“Ble. With a threefold assertion, &c. “Translated and collected by R. R.” Lond. for J. Wolfe, 1583. Bl. Lett. 4to. This work is in metre, and the armorial bearings of the knights are in verse. Prefixed is a poem by Churchyard, in praise of the Bow. His translation of Leland's Asserti o Arthur 1 (Bl. Lett. 4to.) is entered to J. Wolfe, Jun. 6, 1582. Regist R. Station. B. fol. 189. b. I find, licenced to R. James in 1565, “A boke intituled “ of very pleasaunte sonnettes and storyes “in myter [metre] by Clement Robynson.” Rec 1st R. B. fol. 141. a.

* Rec 1st R. ibid.

* Ibid.


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