History of Civilization in England, כרך 1

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תוכן

Hence in France during the sixteenth century every thing was more
33
Their operation on the distribution of wealth 3847
38
Illustration of these principles from Ireland
47
Necessity of ascertaining the fundamental laws of intellectual pro
50
From Egypt 5966
59
Operation of physical laws in Brazil
74
Illustration from the early history of Christianity
78
Influence of the general aspects of nature upon the imagination
85
Influence of literature on the progress of society
88
Also by an unhealthy climate making life precarious 9193
91
Further illustration from Central America
105
The historical method of studying mental laws is superior to
113
Hooker contrasted with Jewel
116
Examination of the two metaphysical methods of generalizing men
118
Scepticism and spirit of inquiry on other subjects
123
The progress of society is twofold moral and intellectual
125
Intellectual truths are the cause of progress
131
The diminution of the warlike spirit is owing to the same cause 137139
137
Chillingworth compared with Hooker and Jewel
142
Illustrations of this from ancient Greece and modern Europe 143144
143
The discoveries made by political economists 150158
151
The application of steam to purposes of travelling 158160
158
INQUIRY INTO THE INFLUENCE EXERCISED BY RELIGION LITERATURE
164
Subsequent movement in the same direction and increasing indiffer
173
Great advantage of this
180
It causes the establishment of the Royal Society
213
Impetus now given to physical science and attempts of the clergy
220
The clergy are naturally hostile to physical science because it lessens
256
Influence of government on the progress of society
258
Legislative improvements in the reign of Charles II in spite of politi
274
These improvements were due to the sceptical and inquiring spirit 27928C
280
This alliance was dissolved by the Declaration of Indulgence 286287
286
After the Revolution the ablest men confined themselves to secular
299
Theology separated from morals and from politics 306307
306
Doctrine of personal representation and idea of independence
312
But discouraged by George III under whom began a dangerous
319
Illustrated by repeal of the cornlaws
321
Importance of the Revolution
324
Ability and accomplishments of Burke 325329
325
Legislators have caused smuggling with all its attendant crimes 202204
332
Burkes subsequent hallucinations and violence 334339
334
The king now favoured him 341342
341
Fresh encouragement thus given to scepticism
430
And by Mazarin
431
But notwithstanding all this there was a great difference between
438
The nobles displace the clergy and celibacy is opposed by the prin
442
Effects of this difference between the two countries in the fourteenth
448
Power of the French nobles
454
Another illustration from the vanity of the French and pride of
460
and Charles I rainly attempted to restore their power
468
CHAPTER VI
469
The English rebellion was a war of classes 4694476
477
Servility in the reign of Louis XIV
481
As such men were the leaders of the Fronde the rebellion naturally
483
HISTORY OF THE PROTECTIVE SPIRIT AND OOMPARISON OF IT IN FRANCE
488
CHAPTER XI
490
Men of letters grateful to Louis XIV
499
Also in zoology and in chemistry
505
And from every branch of literature
513
Convocation first despised and then abolished
519
Conclusions arrived at by the preceding investigations
528
The first improvement in writing history began in the fourteenth
534
In France literature was the last resource of liberty
541
About the eleventh century the spirit of inquiry began to weaken
542
was over
553
Still further progress early in the seventeenth century 557560
557
Illustration of this from the work of Audigier 566568
566
Immense improvements introduced by Voltaire
575
Coinciding with this the feudal system and an hereditary aristocracy
578
His views adopted by Mallet Mably Velly Villaret Duclos
582
He weakened the authority of mere scholars and theologians
588
The discourses of Turgot and their influence
596
The intellect of France began to attack the state about 1750 602603
602
Abolition of the Jesuits
608
Jansenism being allied to Calvinism its revival in France aided
614
But was averted for a time by the most eminent Frenchmen direct
618
And in Condillac
627
In England during the same period there was a dearth of great
636
Relation between inventions discoveries and method and immense
645
Great and successful efforts made by the French in botany 652654
652
All these vast results were part of the causes of the French Revolu
658
And in the establishment of clubs 664666
664
General reflections 570
672

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עמוד 174 - I have been told by an eminent bookseller, that in no branch of his business, after tracts of popular devotion, were so many books as those on the law exported to the plantations. The colonists have now fallen into the way of printing them for their own use. I hear that they have sold nearly as many of Blackstone's " Commentaries
עמוד 335 - The storm has gone over me; and I lie like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours, I am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate on the earth!
עמוד 174 - But all who read, and most do read, endeavour to obtain some smattering in that science. I have been told by an eminent bookseller, that in no branch of his business, after tracts of popular devotion, were so many books as those on the law exported to the plantations.
עמוד 129 - For there is, unquestionably, nothing to be found in the world which has undergone so little change as those great dogmas of which moral systems are composed.
עמוד 333 - ... necessary to consider distinctly the true nature and the peculiar circumstances of the object which we have before us: because, after all our struggle, whether we will or not, we must govern America according to that nature and to those circumstances, and not according to our own imaginations...
עמוד 20 - In a given state of society, a certain number of persons must put an end to their own life. This is the general law; and the special question as to who shall commit the crime depends of course upon special laws; which, however, in their total action, must obey the large social law to which they are subordinate. And the power of the larger law is so irresistible, that neither the love of life nor the fear of another world can avail anything towards even checking its operation.
עמוד 261 - Sir, the State, in choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions ; if they be willing faithfully to serve it, — that satisfies.
עמוד 112 - From these facts it may be fairly inferred, that the advance of European civilization is characterized by a diminishing influence of physical laws, and an increasing influence of mental laws. The complete proof of this generalization can be collected only from history; and therefore I must reserve a large share of the evidence on which it is founded for the future volumes of this work...
עמוד 74 - Brazil, which is nearly as large as the whole of Europe, is covered with a vegetation of incredible profusion. Indeed, so rank and luxuriant is the growth, that Nature seems to riot in the very wantonness of power.
עמוד 31 - For although the progress of knowledge eventually accelerates the increase of wealth, it is nevertheless certain that, in the first formation of society, the wealth must accumulate before the knowledge can begin. As long as every man is engaged in collecting the materials necessary for his own subsistence, there will be neither leisure nor taste for higher pursuits...

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