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«The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages.'

The disciples of Tsze-hea asked Tsze-chang about the principles of intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, “What does Tsze-hea say on the subject?” They replied, Tszehea says,

“ Associate with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so." Tsze-chang observed, “This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honors the talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue? Who is there among men whom I will not bear with ? Am I devoid of talents and virtue?-men will put me away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others ?"

“ Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices it will have neighbors."

The Master said, “It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man, selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise ?"

Tsze-yew said, “In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant."

Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully admonish your friend, and kindly try to lead him. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself."

The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and abroad respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

ON LITIGATION.

The Master said, “In hearing litigations I am like any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations."

CHAPTER IV.

ETHICS.

VIRTUE.

The Master said, “Is he not a man of complete virtue who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

“He who aims to be a man of complete virtue, in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease. He is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech. He frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified. Such a person may be said, indeed, to love to learn."

“If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishment, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

“If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good.”

The Master said, “ Those who are without virtue cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue.”

The Master said, “It is only the truly virtuous man who can love, or who can hate others.”

“If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness.”

“Riches and honors are what men desire. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be avoided.”

“If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements of that name?"

“The superior man does not, even for the space single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste he cleaves to it. In seasons of danger he cleaves to it.”

“I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practice virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person."

“ The faults of men are characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a man's faults it may be known that he is virtuous.”

“A scholar whose mind is set on truth, and who is

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ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with.”

“ The superior man in the world does not set his mind either for anything or against anything ; what is right he will follow.

“ The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favors which he may

receive.Tsze-kung said, “ Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous ?"

The Master said, “Why speak only of virtue in connection with him ? Must he not have the qualities of a sage? Even Yaon and Shun were still solicitous about this.

“Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.

"To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves ;-—this may be called the art of virtue.”

“ Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous, and lo! virtue is at hand.”

Yen Yuen asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from others ?”

Yen Yuen said, “I beg to ask the steps of that process.” The Master replied, “ Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety ; make no movement which is contrary to propriety.” Yen Yuen then said, “ Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson.”

Chung-Kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “ It is, when you go abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice ; not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in the country, and none in the family." Chung-Kung said, “Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson.”

Sze-ma New asked about perfect virtue.

The Master said, “ The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech."

“ Cautious and slow in his speech !” said New ; "is this what is meant by perfect virtue?” The Master said, “ When a man feels the difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in speaking ?"

Sze-ma New asked about the superior man? The Master said, “The superior man has neither anxiety nor fear."

Being without anxiety or fear !” said New; “ does this constitute what we call the superior man ?”

The Master said, “Where internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear ?"

Fan Ch'e rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain-altars, said, “I venture to ask how to

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