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CHAPTER I.

ON GOVERNMENT:

RULERS APPOINTED BY HEAVEN.

Mencius said, “He who with a great State serves a small one, delights in Heaven. He who with a small State serves a large one, stands in awe of Heaven. He who delights in Heaven, will affect with his love and protection the whole empire. He who stands in awe of Heaven, will affect with his love and protection his own kingdom."

It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'I fear the majesty of Heaven, and will thus preserve its favoring decree.'”

“In the Book of History it is said, 'Heaven having produced the inferior people, appointed for them rulers*

* This may be said to be a cardinal doctrine in Chinese politics. Heaven, Earth, Man, are the three great powers. At first, there were Heaven and Earth, but, being without speech, they needed a vicegerent; therefore they created man: this Man is the Emperor, who by Heaven and Earth is ordained to reign over all people under Heaven; hence, we find that in China divine honors are paid to Heaven, Earth, and the Emperor ; hence, also, we perceive a cause for the long continuance of the Chinese government, because rebellion against the emperor would have been rebellion against Heaven : hence, likewise, we perceive how the emperors of China were led to assume superiority over the rulers of other countries.

the

· Yes ;

and teachers, with the purpose that they should be assist-
ing to God, and therefore distinguished them throughout
the four quarters of the empire. How dare any under
heaven give indulgence to their refractory wills?' It is
said in the Book of Poetry,
6. Under the whole heaven,

Every spot is the sovereign's ground;
To the borders of the land,

Every individual is the sovereign's minister !"" Wan Chang said, “Was it the case that Yaou gave empire to Shun?” Mencius said, “ No. The emperor cannot give the empire to another."

but Shun had the empire. Who gave it to him?” “Heaven gave it to him," was the answer. * Heaven

gave

it to him !' did Heaven confer its appointment on him with specific injunctions ?”

Mencius replied, “No. Heaven does not speak It simply showed its will by his personal conduct, and his conduct of affairs."

“ “ It showed its will by his personal conduct, and his conduct of affairs ;' how was this?” Mencius' answer was, “ The empire can present a man to heaven, but he cannot make heaven give that man the empire. A prince can present a man to the emperor, but he cannot cause the emperor to make that man a prince. A great officer can present a man to his prince, but he cannot cause the prince to make that man a great officer. Yaou presented Shun to heaven, and the people accepted him. Therefore I say, 'Heaven does not speak. It simply indicated its will by his personal conduct and his conduct of affairs.'

Chang said, “I presume to ask how it was that Yaou presented Shun to heaven, and heaven accepted him ; and that he exhibited him to the people, and the people accepted him.” Mencius replied, “He caused him to preside over the sacrifices, and all the spirits were well pleased with him: thus heaven accepted him. He caused him to preside over the conduct of affairs, and affairs were well administered, so that the people reposed under him : thus the people accepted him. Heaven gave the empire to him. The people gave it to him. Therefore I said, “The emperor cannot give the empire to another.'

“ Shun assisted Yaou in the government for twenty-andeight years : this was more than man could have done, and was from heaven.

The words of The Great Declaration are: “ Heaven sees according as my people see ; Heaven hears according as my people hear."

INSTRUCTION FOR PRINCES AND PUBLIC OFFICERS.

Mencius said, “How is it posssible to speak with those princes who are not benevolent? Their perils they count safety, their calamities they count profitable, and they have pleasure in the things by which they perish.

“ Next to those who unite the princes in leagues, are those who are skillful to fight; and next to them, those

who take in grassy commons, imposing the cultivation of the ground on the people.

“ The respectful do not despise others. The economical do not plunder others. The prince who treats men with despite, and plunders them, is only afraid that they may not prove obedient to him: how can he be regarded as respectful or economical? How can respectfulness and economy be made out of tones of the voice, and a smiling manner?

When Tsze-ch'an was chief minister of the State of Ch’ing, he would convey people across the Tsin and Wei in his own carriage.

Mencius said, “ It was kind, but showed that he did not understand the practice of government.

“Let a governor conduct his rule on principles of equal justice. But how can he convey everybody across the rivers ? "

“ It follows that if a governor will try to please everybody, he will find the days not sufficient for his work.*

“ Let the people be employed in the way which is intended to secure their ease, and though they be toiled, they will not murmur. Let them be put to death in the way which is intended to preserve their lives, and though they die, they will not murmur at him who puts them to death.

“ Under a chief, leading all the princes, the people look brisk and cheerful. Under a true sovereign, they have an air of deep contentment.

* Good government lies in equal measures for the general good, not in acts of favor to individuals. It is not the business of the public officer to serve the private interests of individuals at the expense of the general good of the State.

“Kindly words do not enter so deeply into men as a reputation for kindness.

“Good government does not lay hold of the people so much as good instructions.

“Good government is feared by the people, while good instructions are loved by them. Good government gets the people's wealth, while good instructions get their hearts.

“He who as a sovereign would perfectly discharge the duties of a sovereign, and he who as a minister would perfectly discharge the duties of a minister, have only to imitate the one Yaou, and the other Shun. He who does not serve his sovereign as Shun served Yaou, does not respect his sovereign, and he who does not rule his people as Yaou ruled his, injures his people.”

Of the five chiefs the most powerful was the duke Hwan. At the assembly of the princes in K’wei-K’ew, he bound the victim and placed the writing upon it, but did not slay it to smear their mouths with the blood. The first injunction in their agreement was, “ Slay the unfilial ; change not the son who has been appointed heir ; exalt not a concubine to the rank of wife.” The second was, “Honor the worthy, and maintain the talented, to give distinction to the virtuous." The third was, “Respect the old, and be kind to the young. Be not forgetful of strangers and travelers." The fourth was, “ Let not offices be hereditary, nor let officers be pluralists. In the selection of officers let the object be to get the proper men. Let not a ruler take it upon himself to put to death a great officer.” The fifth was, “ Follow no crooked policy in making embankments. Impose no restrictions on the sale of grain. Let there

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