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manding and distinguished,” indicates an awe-inspiring deportment. “Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten,” indicates how, when virtue is complete and excellence extreme, the people cannot for

get them.

What is meant by “ The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind," may be thus illustrated :

If a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

When the mind is not present, we look, and do not see; we hear, and do not understand ; we eat, and do not know the taste of what we eat.

This is what is meant by saying that the cultivation of the person depends on the rectifying 'f the mind.

What is meant by “ The regulation of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person,” is this : Men are partial where they feel affection and love ; partial, where they despise and dislike; partial, where they stand in awe and reverence ; partial, where they feel sorrow and compassion ; partial, where they are arrogant arid rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world who love, and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love, or who hate, and yet know the excellence of the object of their hatred.

Hence it is said, in the common adage, “A man does not know the wickedness of his son ; he does not know the richness of his growing corn."

ON HAVING THE THOUGHTS SINCERE.

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What is meant by “making the thoughts sincere,is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad odor, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man he instantly tries to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds him, as if he saw his heart and veins; of what use is his disguise? This is an instance of the saying—“What truly is within will be manifested without.” Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must make his thoughts sincere.

14T

BOOK III.

THE CHUNG YUNG, OR THE DOOTRINE OF

THE MEAN.

PROLEGOMENA BY THE PHILOSOPHER CH'ING.

My master, the philosopher Ch'ing, says: "Being without inclination to either side is called CHUNG ; admitting of no change is called YUNG. By CHUNG is denoted the direct course to be pursued by all under heaven ; by YUNG is denoted the fixed principle regulating all under heaven. This work contains the law of the mind, which was handed down from one to another, in the Confucian school, till Tsze-sze, fearing lest in the course of time errors should arise about it, committed it to writing, and delivered it to Mencius. The book first speaks of one principle; it next spreads this out, and embraces all things; finally, it returns and gathers them all up under one principle. Unroll it, and it fills the universe; roll it up, and it retires and lies hid in mysteri

The relish of it is inexhaustible. The whole of it is solid learning. When the skillful reader has explored it with delight till he has apprehended it, he may carry it into practice all his life, and will find that it cannot be exhausted. CHAPTER I.

ousness.

THE PATH OF DUTY-ITS ORIGIN IN HEAVEN,

A doctrine extensively taught in this third book is, that man by nature is originally good, having the nature he received from heaven; and conduct in accordance with that nature constitutes what is right and true.

What heaven has conferred is called THE NATURE; an accordance with this nature is called THE PATH OF DUTY ; the regulation of this path is called INSTRUCTION.

The path may not be left for an instant. If it could be left, it would not be the path. On this account, the superior man does not wait till he sees things, to be cautious; nor till he hears things, to be apprehensive.

While there are no stirrings of pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, the mind may be said to be in a state of EQUILIBRIUM. When those feelings have been stirred, and they act in their due degree, there ensues what may be called the state of HARMONY.

This EQUILIBRIUM is the great root from which grow all the human actings in the world, and this HARMONY is the universal path which they all should pursue.

Let the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.*

CONFUCIUS AFFIRMS THAT HEAVEN HAS CONFERRED A PER

FECT NATURE UPON ALL, YET MOURNS THAT THE PATH OF THE PERFECT NATURE IS UNTRODDEN.

The Master said, “ Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Mean ! Rare have they long been among the people, who could practice it ! "

“I know how it is that the path of the Mean is not walked in: the knowing go beyond it, and the stupid do not come up to it. I know how it is that the path of the Mean is not understood: the men of talents and virtue go beyond it, and the worthless do not come up to it.”

Alas! How is the path of the Mean untrodden !”

“Men all say, “We are wise;' but being driven forward, and taken in a net, a trap, or a pitfall, they know not how to escape. Men all say, “We are wise ;' but happening to choose the course of the Mean, they are not able to keep it for a round month."

“The empire, its States, and its families, may be perfectly ruled; dignities and emoluments may be declined; naked weapons may be trampled under the feet; but the course of the Mean cannot be attained to."

“ The path is not far from man. When men try to pursue a course which is far from the common indica

By heaven and earth are here meant what were supposed to be the parent powers of the universe, on which depend the generation and nourishing of all things.

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