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The Master said, “ This man seldom speaks ; when he does, he is sure to hit the point."

Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Sze or Shang, was the superior. The Master said, “Sze goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not come up to it.”

“Then," said Tsze-kung," the superiority is with Sze, I suppose.”

The Master said, “To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short.”

“Employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked. In this way the crooked can be made to be upright.”

Yuen Jang was squatting on his heels and so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, “In youth, not humble as befits a junior ; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down ; and living on to old age—this is to be a pest."

When Confucius was in Ch'in, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise.

Tsze-loo, with evident dissatisfaction, said, “Has the superior man likewise to endure in this way?” The Master said, “ The superior man may indeed have to endure want ; but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license. "*

The Master said, “When a number of people are together for a whole day without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness, theirs is indeed a hard case.”

* In the midst of distress, he shows the disciples how the supe. rior man is above complaining.

The Master said, “ Yew, have you heard the six words to which are attached six becloudings?" Yew replied, “I have not."

“Sit down, and I will tell them to you.

“There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning ; the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning ; the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning ; the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning ; the beclouding here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning ; the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning ; the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct."

The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry?

The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.

“They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.

“They teach the art of sociability. “They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.

“From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince.

“From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants."

Tsze-chang said, “The scholar trained for public duty seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is presented to him,

he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed."

CHAPTER V.

ON GOVERNMENT.

ADVICE FOR KINGS.

The Master said, “To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity ; economy in expenditure and love for men ; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar siar, which keeps its place, and all the stars turn towards it."

The duke Gae asked, saying, “What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people ?” Confucius replied, “ Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.”

Ke K’ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to urge themselves to virtue. The Master said, “Let him preside over them with gravity, then they will reverence him. Let him be filial and kind to all, then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent, then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.”

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, “Sir, why are you not engaged in the government ?”

The Master said, What does the Skoo-king say of filial piety? 'You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be that to make one be in the government?

“Pih-e and Shuh-ts'e did not keep the former wickedness of men in mind, and hence the resentments directed towards them were few."

“When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness." Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master

The requisites of government are, that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."

Tsze-Kung said, “If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?” “The military equipment,” said the Master.

Tsze-Kung again asked, “If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?” The Master answered, “Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of all men ; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the State."

said,

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