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aged, to give them rest; in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in regard to the young, to treat them tenderly.”

The Master said, “ It is all over ! I have not yet seen one who could perceive his faults, and inwardly accuse himself.”

“In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found one honorable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning."

“Having not, and yet affecting to have; empty, and yet affecting to be full; straitened, and yet affecting to be at ease: it is difficult, with such characteristics, to have constancy."

Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, “ Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is right : this is the way to exalt one's virtue.”

Tsze-loo never slept over a promise.

The Master said, “By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not err from what is right.”

The Master said, “Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.”

“ The student of virtue has no contentions. If it be said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors ; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking." *

* Anciently the forfeit was paid by the person losing taking the wine; which practice has been handed down to the present day, and may be witnessed at the festive boards of the Chinese :vhen they play at the game of guessing on fingers; the one who guesses wrong is punished by being made to drink a cup of wine.

EDUCATION.

The Master said, “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application ?

“ If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.”

“Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.”

“The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!”

When Tsze-loo heard anything, if he had not yet carried it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something else.

Tsze-Kung asked, saying, “On what ground did Kungwăn get that title of WAN?” The Master said, “He was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors ! On these grounds he has been styled WAN.” (WANmeaning accomplished.)

The Master said, “To those whose talents are above mediocrity, the highest subjects may be announced. To those who are below mediocrity, the highest subjects may not be announced.”

“Let the will be set on the path of duty.

“Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped.

“ Let perfect virtue be accorded with.

“Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts.”

“Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always foaring also lest you should lose it.”

The prosecution of learning may be compared to what may happen in raising a mound. If there want but one basket of earth to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work. It may be compared to throwing down the earth on the level ground. Though but one basketsul is thrown at a time, the advancing with it is my own going forward."

The Master said of Yen Yuen, “ Alas! I saw his constant advance. I never saw him stop in his progress.”

“ There are cases in which the blade springs, but the plant does not go on to the flower! There are cases where it flowers, but no fruit is subsequently produced !***

The philosopher Tsăng said, “The superior man on literary grounds, meets with his friends, and by their friendship helps his virtue.”

The Master said, “The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort, is not fit to be deemed a scholar.”

“In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Now-a-days men learn with a view to the approbation of others.”

“ Those who are born with the possession of knowledge, are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily get possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn, they are the lowest of the people."

* Learners should not cease nor intermit their labors. It is the end which crowns the work.

DILIGENCE, TEMPERANCE, POLITENESS.

Tsae Yu being asleep during the daytime, the Master said, “ Rotten wood cannot be carved ; wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. This Yu! what is the use of my reproving him?"

The Master said, “At first my way with men was to hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now

my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yu that I have learned to make this change.”

Chung-Kung said, “If a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business, though he may be easy in small matters in his government of the people, that may be allowed. But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not such an easy mode of procedure excessive ?"

The Master said, "Kung's words are right."

The Master said, “ Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hwuy! With a single bamboo dish of rice, a single gourd dish of drink, and living in his mean, narrow lane, while others could not have endured the distress, he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hwuy!”

Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate."

“The superior man is satisfied and composed ; the mean man is always full of distress.”

“I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used

himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap

and
apron.

He lived in a low mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and waterchannels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu.”

The Master said, “Gan P’ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as at first.

A youth of the village of K'euěh was employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, “I suppose he has made great progress.”

The Master said, “I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man ; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man.

GENERAL DUTIES:

The philosopher Yew said, “When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters.

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* Rules of ceremony give the corner to the youth, the body of the room to the full-grown men; and in walking, the youth walks a little behind the elder.

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