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“When Ch’ih was proceoding to Ts'e, he had fạt horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard that a superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the wealth of the rich." Yuen Sze being made governor of his town by the Masgave
him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them.
The Master said, “ Do not decline them. May you not give them away in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages ?”
“Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety : then all within the four seas will be his brothers.* What has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers ?”
Kih Tsze-shing said, “In a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which are wanted ; why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments ?”
Tsze-kung said, “ Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue.
“Ornament is as substance; substance is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or leopard stript of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or goat stript of its hair.”
The Master said, “The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean man is adulatory, but not affable."
* The great Yu is represented as having made the four seas as four ditches, to which he drained the waters inundating “the middle kingdom.” Plainly, the ancient conception of their own coun. try was, as the great habitable tract; north, south, east, and west of which were four seas or oceans, between whose shores and their own borders the intervening space was not very great, and occupied by wild hordes of inferior races.
“The superior man is easy to serve, and difficult to please. If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."
“The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease.”
“ The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest, are near to virtue.”
“ The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress of the mean man is downwards."
The philosopher Ts'ang said, “The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place."
The Master said, “The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions." The
way of the superior man is three-fold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.”
“He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily when they occur—is he not a man of superior worth?”
“The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."
“The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He is not distressed by men's not knowing him.
“He dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death.
“What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean man seeks, is in others.
“He is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partisan.
“ He does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man.”
“The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is ploughing ; even in that there is sometimes want. So with learning; emolument
be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come
“ The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."
“ The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties his anger may involve him in. When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness.”
Tsze-loo said, “ Does the superior man esteem valor ?" The Master said, “The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of insubordination ; one of the lower people, having valor without righteousness, will commit robbery.”
Tsze-kung said, “Has the superior man his hatreds also ?” The Master said, “He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and determined, and at the same time of contracted understanding." The Master then inquired, “ Tsze, have
your hatreds ?" Tsze-kung replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom. hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."
Tsze-hea said, “The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his prince, he may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying him."
Tsze-kung said, “The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his
faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men look up to him."
ON THE FORMATION OF CHARACTER.
Tsze-hea said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous ; if in serving his parents he can exert his utmost strength; if in serving his prince he can devote his life ; if in his intercourse with his friends his words are sincere; although men say he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.”
Tsze-kung said, “What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud ?" The Master replied, “ They will do; but they are not equal to him who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety.”
Tsze-kung replied, “ It is said in the Book of Poetry, As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.' The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."
The Master said, “ With one like Tsze I can begin to talk about the Odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence.
In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but
* Reference is made to the ode which praises the prince who dealt with himself as the ivory-worker or lapidary works his materials, meaning that a person must not be satisfied with present attainments, but strive after greater.