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236; John HENRY LIVINGSTON, Dutch Reformed Article, page 205; WILLIAM OTTERBEIN, United Brethren Article, page 560; John M. Mason, Associate Reformed Article, page 24; Finis Ewing, Cumberland Presbyterian Article, page 499; JACOB ALBRIGHT, Evangelical Article, page 275; David Marks, Freewill Baptist Article, page 74; David MILLARD, Christian Article, page 164; Elias Hicks, Hicksite Quaker Article, page 290: ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, Disciples Article, page 223; WILLIAM MILLER, Advent Article, page 37; RICHARD AELEN, African Methodist Article, page 396; CHRISTOPHER Bush, African Methodist Article, page 399; POPE Plus IX., Roman Catholic Article, page 131; and JOHN WINEBRENNER, Article on the Church of God, page 170.
Again, this second edition is much superior to the first,
III. Because the articles are somewhat better arranged, and a very useful and convenient AnalyTICAL Index, and Synoptical View of each article, prefixed to the work.
By means of this Index and Synopsis, any leading and distinguishing point in the History, Faith or Practice of any and all the denominations, may be easily traced and ascertained. This, of course, will be, for many persons and purposes, of great utility and advantage.
The reader will likewise find a very interesting INTRODUCTION, in which short accounts are given, of various associations and sects, some of which have become extinct, others scattered in different places throughout the country, without any regular organization, and others limited to certain particular places. The publisher, therefore, claims for this work, the merit of a full and complete “ History of all the Religious Denominations, which have been, and which now are in the United States of North America."
Besides all this, he may add, it is now offered to the public at greatly reduced prices-such prices as will put it in the reach of all classes of readers.
The regular retail price of the common edition, in plain leather or cloth binding, is $1.75 per copy; little over half the price of the first edition.
The retail price of the portrait edition, in extra gilt (leather or cloth) binding, is $2.50, and the embossed super-extra gilt, $3.00 per copy.
These are the uniform, regular and established retail prices, at which agents and booksellers throughout the United States are required to sell. Those who deviate from these prices, either way, the present editor and publisher is not disposed to deal with at all. Hence, let all persons who engage in the sale of this work, take notice that they are rigidly restricted to these fixed and uniform prices.
In fine, we hesitate not to assert, that this work will be found to give more general, accurate and satisfactory information, touching the Rise and Progress, Faith and Practice, Localities and Statistics, of the several denominations in the United States, than any other work now extant. This fact has been freely acknowledged by the American Press, and other eminent men, as may be seen from the Recommendations and opinions of the Press on the few last pages of this work. Vide pages 599, and 600.
J. WINEBRENNER HARRISBURG, JAN. 20th, 1848.
Tue Editor of this work deems it appro- | ning with finding fault, proposing and urging priate, by way of introduction, tó notice some new regulations in the society, in respect to sects that formerly existed in the United the discipline of it, and complaining, “There States, and, also, to give a príssing notice of wrs too greut a xlnckness therein." Upon bis others still in existence, whose history is not friends not readily joining with him and his embraced in the history of the denominations proposals, in the manner he expected, he be- || given in the body of the work. These notices came still more captious, and more disposed are designedly brief.
to seek matters of reproach and offence against In 1691, GEORGE Kurtii, an eminent preacher divers in the Society, and to make the worst of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, for of them; charging some of his friends, who many years, who had written and published were generally esteemed and approved ministreatises in defence of their religious principles, ters, with preaching false doctrines; and, it is seceded from them, and a number of Quakers said, even in points contrary to what he himjoined him. However, in a few years after self had formerly held and declared in his wards, the major part of those who had sepa- writings, in defiance of the Qunkers, and their rated themselves, retnrned again to the So- cardinal principles. He denied, in particular, ciety. This seceding party were styled the sufficiency to salvation of the Holy Spirit, KEITHIANS. They practised baptism and without the aid of the gospel; and with a the Lord's Supper." 'hey were also called fanaticism which struck at the root of the Quaker Baptists, because they immersed and Proprietary power of William Penn, he de. retained the language, dress and manner of the clared it unlawful for Quakers to engage in Quakers.
the administration of government, and more Keith was, says Proud, a man of quick, especially of the penal law. To his brethren natural parts, and considerable literary abili- he was captions and supercilious; treating ties; acute in argument, and very ready and their remonstrances with contumely, and asable in logical disputations, and nice distinc- sailing their persons and church with indecotions on theological subjects; but said to be rous epithets. of a brittle temper and overbearing disposition
His conduct induced the society to expel of mind; not sufficiently tempered and quali- him, although he and his adherents claimed to fied with that Christian moderation and char. | be the true church, and the others were the ity, which give command over the human apostates. Having been expelled and disowned passions, the distinguishing characteristic of by the Quakers, Heith became a violent ene. true Christianity; of which he himself not only my, took orders in England, whither he went, made high professions, but also in his younger in the established church, and returned to years, as appears by his writings, had a good | America as missionary. He officiated in his understanding. This great confidence in his new functions for about twelve months; and, own superior abilities, seems to have been having given the Quakers all the trouble in one, if not the chief, introductory cause of the his power, he returned again to England, by unhappy dispute with the Friends. When way of Virginia. In England he wrote against men set too high a value on themselves, and the Quakers. But, it is said, that on his others will not own up to their price, then they death-bed he said, “I wish I had died when I are discontented. He is said to have had too was a Quuker; for then I am sure it would have much life in argument and disputation on been well with my soul. religious points of controversy, and sometimes The NEW BORN, was a sect that originated to have exhibited an unbecoming vanity on in Oley township, Philadelphia, (now Berks victory, thereby obtained over his opponents, county, Pa.,) in the early part of the last cen. even prior to the schism between him and his tury. This sect had one Mathias Bowman for friends. For, having, some time before, been some years as leader. He was a native of on a visit to New England, he is represented Lamsheim, Palatinate Germany; having heard as having indulged his natural propensity in of the shepherdless few of his faith in this this way, among the preachers and inhabitants country, he embarked for America in 1719. there, in a very extravagant manner; which The peculiar tenets of Bowman and his disposition of mind, from that time forward, friends, can only be gathered from detached appeared to have so far got the ascendency fragments gleaned some years ago, from letorer him, that, on his return, he began to ex ters and other manuscripts still extant, the hibit the same, even among his friends, begin. Hallische Nachrichten, Colonial Records of
Pennsylvania, and Chronica Ephratensis. • Proud's Pa. I. p. 363-377.
Bowman, it appears, was honest and sin.
cere: uot solicitous to accumulate wealth ; but | All the teachers in the world, not freed from that could not be said of all his followers, sin, and not in an impeccable state, are false among whom were Pkten KUEHLWEIT,* Yot- teachers, be they devoul or not. In the king. LER, and others—these loved the things of the dom of Christ, none but Christ prevails. He world inordinately, They professed sinless that has not him is none of his; and where perfection-boasted that they were sent of God he is, there man is set free from sin." io confound others. They, in their zeal to The WILKINSONIANS were followers proselyte, even annoyed the retired Sieben | of a certain Jemima Wilkinson, extensively Tueger, at Ephrata, by intruding themselves known, by reputation, as a religious fanatic, upon their notice, in their hermitage. Their in the western part of New York. Her house, disputations were also frequently heard in the in Yates county, New York, is still occupied market places of Philadelphia, among the by a few persons, the sole remnant of her fol. quiet Friends. A cotemporary, the venerable lowers. Jemima was born in Rhode Island in Joux Peter Miller, says, that Bowman pro- 1753, and educated a Quaker. In October, posed to the sceplic Philadelphians to prove to 1776, on recovering from a fit of sickness, them that his doctrines were divine, by walk- during which she had fallen into a syncope, so ing across the Delaware river on the water. that she was apparently dead. She announced Bowman died in 1727; but traces of the ex- that she had been raised from the dead, and istence of New Born are found twenty or had received a divine commission as a relimore years after his death. In the Hallische gious teacher. Having made some proselytes, Nachrichten, p. 226, June 10, 1747, the Rev. Dr. she removed them to Yates County, New York, Muhlenberg says: “I started from New Hano- and settled between Seneca Lake and Crooked ver, and eight miles from here, called to see Lake, about eighteen miles from Geneva, at an old person of the su-called New Born, Bluff Point, and called her village New Jeru. who had married a widow some twenty years salem, where she lived for many years, in very ago; with her he had five children. The old elegant style. It is said she inculcated poman says he was New Born in the Palatinate. verty, but was careful to be the owner of The evidences, however, of his having been lands, purchased in the name of her comNew Bons are simply these : according to his panion, Rachel Miller. She professed to be own often repeated declaration, he had šeceded able to work miracles, and offered to demonfrom the Reformed Church-denounced the strate it by walking on the water in imitation sacraments had refused to take the oath of of Christ: accordingly a frame was confealty to the then reigning election, that he and structed for the purpose on the banks of the others were imprisoned-and, according to his Seneca Lake, ai Rapelyea's ferry, ten miles opinion, had thus suffered on account of Christ south of Dresden. At the appointed time, and the truth.
having approached within a few hundred “ He will not listen to reasonable counsel- yards of the lake shore, she alighted from her he rejects all revealed truth-he will not suffer carriage, the road being strewed by her fol. to be taught-he is obstinately selfish-a man lowers, with white handkerchiefs. She walked of turbulent passions. After he had arrived to the platform, and having announced her in this country, he united with the so-called intention of walking across the lake on water, New Born. They feign having received the she addressed the multitude, inquiring whether NEW Birth through mediate inspiration, appa- or not they had faith that she could pass over, ritions, dreams, and the like. One thus re- or if otherwise, she could not; and on re. generated, fancies himself to be like God and ceiving an affirmative answer, returned to her Christ himself, and can henceforth sin no carriage, declaring a they believed in her more! Hence the New Bonn use not the power, it was unnecessary to display it. word of God as a means of salvation. They When she preached, she stood in the door scoff at the holy sacraments.”
of her bed-chamber, wearing a waistcoat, a In a letter dated Oley Township, May 14, stock, and a white silk cravat. Her religious 1718, written by Maria De Turk, to her rela- tenets were a singular medley. She declared tives in Germany, she says: “ Menschen she had an immediate revelation for all she ruehmen sich Christen, und wissen nicht wasz delivered, and had attained to a state of absodie Neugeburt ist. Die Neugeburt ist der neue Inte perfection. She pretended to foretell Stein das Niemand weisz was er ist, als der future events, to discern the secrets of the ihn bekommt;" i. e. Men boast of being Chris heart, and to have the power of healing distians, and do not know what the New birth is.
She asserted that those who refused to 'The New birth is that New Stone that none believe these exalted things of her, rejected kneweth but he that receiveth it. In the con the counsel of God against themselves. She clusion of her letter, she says: "Teachers actually professed to be Christ in his second and hearers--none of them are Christians; appearing.* She assumed the title of the for they are sinners; but Christ came to des. troy sin. He that is not absolved from sin;
* Thayendanegea, or Joseph Brant, once met with her, for him Christ has not appeared in this world. and very adroitly discomfitted her, as she professed to
be Christ in his second appearing. Brant tested her by
speaking in different Indian languages, none of which * Colonial Records, III. 349.
she understood. He then disclosed her imposture,
universal friend of mankind; hence her fol. else; hence all singleness ceases to exist. It lowers distinguish themselves by the name of is dissclved into one great body, of which one FRIENDS. She died in 1819, at the age of lives for all, and all for one." They number fifty-six years.
about four thousand souls. SEPARATISTS; several communities of Their venerable founder and spiritual guide, these have settled in various parts of the George Rapp, died, August 7th, 1847. ImmeUnited States. This sect, if such it may be diately after his death, the Society appointed a called, originated in Germany, in the early board of elders of nine members, seven of part of the last century. It is maintained that which attend to the interior concerns, and R. the Brownists of England gave cause to the L. Baker, and Jacob Henrici, to the exterior. rise of the Separatists of Germany.* The Jacob Henrici, aided by others, attends to the principal communities of the Separatists in Spiritual department. A vote of six of the this country, are the following :- The Harmony nine elders is binding. They can remove any Society, The Zoarites, und German Ebenezer one of the nine, and fill all vacancies. Society.
The ZOARITES, risiding in Tuscarawas, The founder of the Harmony Society, was
are also a secession from the Lutheran GEORGE Rapp burn Oct. 28, 1757, in the town Church. They came to this country from of Iptinger Oberant Maulbronn, in the king. Germany, about thirty years ago. This sodom of Wurtemberg, Europe. Rapp was a ciety is under the government of a patriarch, Lutheran. At the age of twenty-five he with and chooses its own officers. They number at drew from that church, and commenced present about four hundred. They were at “speaking his religious sentiments to a few first poor, purchased their lands on credit, friends in his private dwelling, but never which they have long since paid for, and ceased contributing to the church and state added a thousand acres more to their first that which the law required. He soon had a possessions. They are tenants in common; number of adherents, and as they increased, each seeks to advance his own interest by persecutions waxed strong against them.” To promoting that of the whole community. avoid being persecuted, they concluded to seek THE GERMAN EBENEZER SOCIETY, an asylum in the United States. Rapp, in located six or seven miles east of Buffalo, N. company with three friends, came to America, Y., came to America about five years ago. in 1803, and purchased lands in Butler Co., Pa. They are Prussian Lutheran dissenters. They In 1804, and 1805, about one hundred and number about eight hundred souls. Their twenty-five families followed. In the latter spiritual wants are in charge of pastor Graban, year, an association was organized conform who, it is said, rules them with an iron rod. ably to that of the first church at Jerusalem, Their property is held in common. Religion, mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, chap. says one who lately visited them, seems to be iv. 34, 35. In 1815, they sold their property in the governing and inspiring element in this Butler county, and located in Posey county, community; each day's labor is preceded by Indiana. Here they remained only iwo years, a season of devotional exercises in their when they removed to Beaver Co. Pa., where several families, and after the close of labor they built up a third town, their present lo- at night, they assemble by neighborhoods, cality, called Economy, a name characteristic and spend an hour in prayer and praise. The of the people themselves. Agriculture, manu- afternoon of Wednesday and Saturday, is defactures, and commerce, give employment to voted to religious improvement. The Sabbath all-branches of industry in which they excel. is strictly observed by an omission of all First of all, the wants of the members are secular business, and by various religious supplied, then the surplus of their products exercises, both in their families and public are sold.
assemblies. Thus far all has been charac“A written contract, or articles of associa- terized by perfect peace and harmony. tion, contain the basis of membership, which There are several other small bodies or every one signs upon admission, after first communities of Dissenters or Separatists, of undergoing a probation of one year, during which a mere passing notice can be given in which period the applicant has ample time this connexion. These are the Lutherans of and opportunity to examine and decide, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, &c., under the gui. whether the conditions are such as he thinks dance of the Rev. Stephan, who settled in Mishe can comply with, and whether the internal souri, and some in Wisconsin, attached to the and external advantages he appears to enjoy, famous Krause. are such as to outweigh the advantages of his RATIONALISTS.- Of these, congregations prior position. The neophyte, in sarrendering are to be found in Baltimore. Philadelphia, his property to this community, does not even New York, and Buffalo. They publish a reserve his own person. He becomes the periodical, devoted to the promulgation of their property of the whole, as well as any thing peculiar sentiments. Die Fackel, i.e., The
Torch, edited by a certain Ludwig, is published simply by declaring that Jesus Christ must, of course, in New York, and has, it is said, an extensive understand all languages, one as well as the other.- circulation, principally, however, among imStone's Life of Sagoyevotha, p. 121.
• Ehrenfried's Handicorterbuch. Article Separatisten. migrant Germans.
COMEOUTERS.—There are to be found a religion they profess. They believe that true considerable number of persons in the north. Christian worship is independent of time and ern, and principally in the eastern States, who place; that it has no connection with forms, have recently seceded from various religious ceremonies, and external arrangements, any denominations, to whom the name COMEOUT. further than these are exponents of a divine ons is applied. This is, however, no distinctive life; that it is spontaneous; in short, they name assumed by themselves, as they do not regard the terms Christian worship and Chris. intend to organize a sect. They maintain, as tian obedience, as synonymous, believing that their creed, that every one should hold such he gives the highest and only conclusive evi. opinions on religious subjects, as he pleases, dence of worshipping the Creator, who exhiwithout being amenable to his fellow.
bits in his life the most perfect obedience to They hold, consequently, a diversity of opi- his will. These views, they consider in pernion on sone points. In the main, they agree, fect harmony with the teachings of Jesus, parby common consent, that Jesus Christ was a ticularly in his memorable conversation with divinely inspired tencher, and his religion, a the woman of Samaria. They also agree that revelation of eternal truth. They regard Jesus the religion of Christ asserts the equality of as the only authorized expositor of his own all men before God; that it confers upon ro religion, and believe that to apply in practice man, or class of men, a monopoly of heaven's its principles as promulgated by him, and ex. favors ; neither does it give to a portion of his emplified in his life, is all that is essential to children any means of knowing his will not constitute a Christian, according to the testi- common to the race. mony of Jesus, Matt. vii. 24—Whosoever They believe the laws of the sonl are heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, plain that they may be easily comprehended I will liken him unto a wise man which built by all who sincerely seek to know them with. his house upon a rock, &c.” Hence they be out the intervention of any human teacher or lieve, that to make it essential to Christianity expounder. Hence they regard no teaching as to assent to all the opinions expressed by cer- authoritative but that of the Spirit of God. They tain men, good men though they were, who believe that every one whose soul is imbued wrote either before or after his time, involves with a knowledge of the truth, is qualified to a denial of Christ. They believe that accord- be its minister, and it becomes his duty and ing to his teachings, true religion consists in his pleasure, by his every word and action, to purity of heart, holiness of life, and not in preach it to the world. It follows, then, that as opinions; that Christianity, as it existed in the Christ prepares and appoints his own minis. mind of Christ, is a life rather than belief. lers, and as they receive their commission
They also agree in opinion, that he only is only from him, they are accountable to him a Christian, who has the spirit of Christ; that alone for their exercise, and not to any human all such as these are members of his church, authority whatsoever. They therefore reject and that it is composed of none others; there. all human ordinations. appointments, or confore, that membership in the Christian church trol, or any designation by man of an order of is not, and cannot, in the nature of things, be men to preach the gospel, as invasions on his determined by human authority. Hence they rightful prerogative. deem all attempts to render the church identi. Against slavery and war, they come out fear. cal with any outward organization, as utterly lessly. They assert as one of the principal futile, not warranted by Christ himself, and reasons for leaving the churches with which incompatible with its spiritual character. they had been connected, that those bodies Having no organized society, they have no gave their sanction to these anti-Christian stations of authority or superiority, which they practices. Many of them believe it sinful to believe to be inconsistent with the Christian sanction punishments or penalties for crime. idea, Matt. xxiii. 18, " But be not called Rabbi: They hold meetings in various places, on for one is your master, even Christ, and all ye the Lord's day, which they conduct in accordare brethren." Matt. xx, 25, 26, “Ye know ance with their views of Christian freedom that the princes of the Gentiles exercise domj. and equality. They meet professedly to pro. nion over them, and they that are great exer- mote each other's spiritual welfare. To this cise authority upon them. But it shall not be end, a free interchange of sentiments on reli. 80 among you."
gious subjects is encouraged, without any re. They discard outward ordinances as having straint or formality. They have no prescribed no place in spiritual religion, the design of exercises, but every one is left at liberty to which is to purify the heart, and the extent of utter his thoughts as he may feel inclined whose influence is to be estimated by its legiti- even those who differ from them in opinion, mate effects in producing a life of practical are not only at liberty, but are invited, to give righteousness, and not by any mere arbitrary expression to their thoughts. This they be. sign, which cannot be regarded as a certain lieve to be the only true mode of holding re. indication of the degree of spiritual life, and ligious meetings, consistent with the genius must consequently be inefficient and unneces of their religion. They refer to the primitive sary. Their views of worship correspond, as Christians' meetings to support them in their they believe, with the spiritual nature of the practices.