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have very close fur, which scarcely at all the male places himself in the position retards them in their movements when above described against the trunk. swimming. The elephant and rhinoce- The gorilla has only very partially ros are, indeed, difficult cases to ex- acquired the erect position, and probplain ; but of course it is not necessary ably sits but little in the attitudes comto suppose that no other cause save that mon to man. But if a developing anwhich we are considering can ever pro- thropoid ape were to grow more and ( uce hairlessness. It will be enough if more upright in his carriage, and to lie we can show that the cause actually un- more and more upon his back and sides, der examination does with reasonable we might naturally expect that the hair certainty bring about such an effect. upon those portions of his body would
If, then, the portion of animals which grow thinner and thinner, and that the generally comes in contact with the usual characteristics of the mammalia as ground or other external bodies acquires to dorsal and sternal pilosity would be in this manner a hairless condition- completely reversed. This is just what shown alike in hands, feet, tail, and has probably happened in the case of belly—what will be the result upon ani- In proportion as he grew more mals which are gradually acquiring the erect, he inust have lain less and less erect position ? Of this we can obtain upon his stomach, and more and more an almost complete series by looking upon his back or sides. For fully defirst at the beaver, which rests upon its veloped man, with the peculiar set of scaly tail alone ; then at the baboons, his neck, face, and limbs, it is almost which rest upon the naked callosities on impossible to rest upon his stomach. their haunches ; thirdly, at the gorilla ; On the other hand, all savage races lie and, last of all, at mankind.
far more upon their backs than even The gorilla, according to Professor Europeans with their sofas, couches, Gervais, is the only mammal which agrees and easy-chairs ; for the natural position with man in having the hair thinner on of savage man during his lazy hours is to the back, where it is partly rubbed off, stretch himself on the ground in the than on the lower surface. This is a
sun, with his eyes closed, and with his most important approach to a marked back propped, where possible, by a human peculiarity, and is well worthy slight mound or the wall of his hut. of investigation. “ I have myself come Any person who has lived much amongst upon fresh traces of a gorilla's bed on negroes or South Sea Islanders, must several occasions,' says Du Chaillu, have noticed how constant is this atti" and could see that the male had seated tude with men, women, and children, himself with his back against a tree- at every stray idle moment. trunk. In fact, on the back of the male Nor must we forget the peculiar mangorilla there is generally a patch on which ner in which human mothers must necesthe hair is worn thin from this position, sarily have carried their infants from a while the nest-building Troglodytes calvus, very early period in the development of or bald-headed nshiego, which constantly our race. During the first eighteen sleeps under its leafy shelter on a tree months of life the human infant must branch, has this bare place on its side, always be held, or laid, more or less and in quite a different way.” “When upon its back; and this position will I surprised a pair of gorillas," he ob- probably tend to check the development serves elsewhere," the male was gener- of hair upon the dorsal and lateral really sitting down on a rock or against a gions. tree.”
Once more, in a third passage Next, let us ask what is the actual he writes, “In both male and female distribution of hair upon the body of the hair is found worn off the back ; but man. Omitting those portions where this is only found in very old females. the ornamental use of hair has specially This is occasioned, I suppose, by their preserved it, the most hairy region is resting at night against trees, at whose generally, so far as my observations go, base they sleep.” And when we inquire the fore part of the leg or shin. Obinto the difference between the sexes viously this is a region very little likely thus disclosed, we learn that the female to come in contact with external oband young generally sleep in trees, while jects. On the other hand, the most absolutely hairless places are the palms of the hairy adjuncts which man still rethe hands and the soles of the feet, after tains. which come the elbows, and at a long in- In the first place, we have external terval the knees and knuckles. The reasons for believing that sexual selecback is very hairless, and so are the tion has produced similar results elsehaunches. But the legs are more hairy where, acting upon a like basis of natuthan the body, both in front and be- ral denudation. For among the manhind, though less hairy on the calf than drills and some other monkeys the on the shin. Now it will be obvious naked callosities, originally produced, as that both by day and night we rest more is here suggested, by physical friction, upon our backs and haunches than upon have been utilised for the display of our legs, the latter being free when we beautiful pigments ; and Mr. Bartlett insit down on a chair or bench, doubled in formed Mr. Darwin that as the animals front of us when we squat on the ground reach maturity the naked surfaces grow (the normal position of savages), and larger in comparison with the size of the thrown about loosely when we lie down. body. When we look at the great defiEspecially might we conclude that this niteness and strange coloring of these would be the case with early races, un- bare patches we can hardly doubt that embarrassed by the weight of bed- they have been subjected to some such clothes. As for the arms, it is notice- selective process. able that they still retain the ordinary But if man once began to lose the hair mammalian habit in being hairier on the over the whole of his back, shoulders, back than on the front; and this also is and haunches, as well as more partially quite in accordance with our present sug- upon his sides, legs, and arms, he would gestion, because the same differentiating soon present an intermediate half-hairy causes have not worked upon the arm as appearance which is certainly very ludithey work upon the back and legs. The crous and shabby-looking. Why this peculiar position of the anterior extremi- middle stage should displease us, it might ties in man, together with the erect pos- be rash to guess ; yet one may rememture, makes the arms come much more ber that as a rule throughout the mamfrequently into frictional contact with malia a partially hairless body would be the body or clothing on their inner associated with manginess, disease, and than on their outer surface.
Hair deformity. At any rate, it seems to be grows most abundantly where there is the fact that when animals once begin normally least friction, and vice versa. losing their hair, they go on to lose it As for the hair which frequently appears altogether. One may well believe that upon the chest of robust Europeans and among our evolving semi-human ancesothers, I shall return to that point at a tors those individuals which had most later stage. It may be noted, however, completely divested themselves of hair, that while the first joint of the fingers is would be the most attractive to their *hairy, the second joint, answering to the mates ; and these would also on the callosity of the gorilla, is generally bare. average be those which had most fully
As man, then, gradually assumed the adopted the erect attitude with its acerect attitude and the reversed habits of companying alterations of habit. Thus sitting and lying down which it necessa- natural selection would go hand in hand rily involves, it seems to me that he with sexual selection (as I believe it almust have begun to lose the hair upon ways does), those anthropoids which his back. But such a partial loss will most nearly approached the yet unrealnot fully account for his present very ised standard of humanity being most hairless condition over the whole body likely to select one another as mates, and (with trifling exceptions) in the average their offspring being most likely to surof all sexes, races, and ages. For this vive in the struggle for life with their less further and complete denudation I think anthropoid competitors.* It does not we must agree with Mr. Darwin in in
* On the advantages which man or his halfvoking the aid of sexual selection, especially when we take into consideration semi-erect position, see Darwin Descent of
developed ancestor derived from the erect or the ornamental and regular character of Man, p. 53.
seem probable, to me at least, that a nat- definiteness of these hairy patches, as of urally hairy species would entirely divest the callosities in the monkeys, stamps itself of its hair through sexual selection, them at once as of sexual origin. The especially as the first steps of such a pro- poll is probably derived by us from some cess could hardly fail to render it a of our anthropoid ancestors, as crests of mongrel-looking and miserable creature; hair frequently appear upon the heads but it seems natural enough that if the of the quadrumana. But as man gradoriginal impulse was given by a physical ually became more erect and less forestdenudation, the influence of sexual selec- ine, as he took to haunting open plains tion would rapidly strengthen and com- and living more in the sunlight, the explete the process. Indeed, if a hairy istence of such a natural covering, as a animal once began losing its hair, the protection from excessive heat and light only beauty which it could aim at would upon the head, would doubtless prove be that of a smooth and shiny naked of advantage to him; and it might, black skin.
therefore, very possibly be preserved by Woman is the sex most affected in natural selection. Certainly it is noticemankind by sexual selection, as has able that this thick mat of hair occurs been often abundantly shown. Hence in the part of his body which the erect we should naturally expect the denuda- position most exposes to the sunlight, tion to proceed further in her case than and is thus adaptively analogous to the in that of man. Especially among sav- ridge of hair which runs along the spine age and naked races we should conclude or top of the back in many quadrupeds, that hairlessness on the body would be and which is not visible in any quadruesteemed a beauty ; and we find as a manous animal that I have examined. matter of fact that most such races have The beard also bears marks of a quadabsolutely smooth and glistening skins. rumanous origin, as Mr. Darwin has But in Europe, men often develop hair shown ; but its varying presence or ababout the chest and legs, though not sence in certain races affords us a good upon the back and shoulders, while clue to the general course of evolution women seldom or never do so. Here in this particular. For amongst the we see that the hair reappears in the bearded races a fine and flowing beard less differentiated male sex rather than is universally admired; while amongst in the more differentiated females, with the beardless races stray hairs are carewhom sexual selection has produced fully eradicated, thus displaying the greater effects ; while it also reappears same aversion to the intermediate or only on those parts where the original half-hairy state, which, as I suppose, denudating causes do not exert any in- has been mainly instrumental in comfluence. Similarly, the smooth-bodied pletely denuding the body of man. negroes, transported to America, and Certainly it is a fact that while we can subjected at once to a change of condi- admire a European with a full and handtions and to circumstances which would some development of hair upon the chin render sexual selection impossible as re- and lip, and while we can admire an gards the hairlessness of the body, rapid African or a North American Indian with ly re-develop hair upon the chest. For a smooth and glossy cheek, we turn with we must remember that sexual selection dislike from thin and scanty hair either can only act in this direction while a in a European, a negro, or an Asiatic. race remains wholly or mainly naked. It seems to me that in every case the Clothing, by concealing the greater part general æsthetic feeling of the whole of the skin, necessarily confines the se- human race is the same; but that in lective process to features, complexion, one tribe circumstances have made it and figure.
easier to produce one type of beauty, As to the poll, beard, whiskers of while in another tribe other conditions certain races, we must believe that they have determined the production of anare the result of selective preferences other type. Thus, in a negro, a very acting upon general tendencies derived black and lustrous skin, clear bright from earlier ancestors, and, perhaps, eyes, white teeth, and a general conaided in the first-mentioned instance formity to the normal or average negro by natural selection. The comparative features are decidedly pleasant even to Europeans when once the ordinary and the higher quadrumana this hair has standard has become familiar ;* while a convergent direction towards the point in a European the same eyes and teeth of the elbow, both from above and from are admired, but a white skin, a rosy below. complexion, and moderate conformity Finally, it may be noted that the hairto the ideal Aryan type are demanded. less condition of man, though apparEach is alike pretty after its own kind, ently a disadvantage to him, has probathough naturally the race to which we bly been indirectly instrumental in helpeach ourselves belong, possesses in most ing him to attain his present exalted cases the greatest attractiveness to each position in the organic scale. For if, as of us individually.
is here suggested, it originally arose Of course, both in the beard of man, from the reactions of the erect attitude, and in the general hairiness of his body, it must have been associated from the as compared with woman, allowance first with the most humanlike amongst must be made for that universal tenden- our ancestors. Again, if it was comcy of the male to produce extended teg- pleted by sexual selection, it must also umentary modifications, which, as Mr. have been associated with the most æsWallace has abundantly shown, depends thetic individuals among the evolving upon the superior vigor of that sex. species. And if, as we have seen reason Yet the period when the beard first to believe, these two qualities would tend shows itself, and the loss of color in the to accompany one another, then this hair of both sexes after the reproductive slight relative disadvantage would be period is past, clearly stamp these modi- pretty constantly correlated with other fications as sexual in origin.
and greater advantages, physical and It must be remembered also, in ac- intellectual, which enabled the young counting for the general loss of hair on species to hold its own against other both back and front of the body, that competing, organisms. But, granting the older ancestral heredity would tend this, the disadvantage in question would to make the chest bare, and the newer naturally spur on the half-developed anacquired habits would tend to pro- cestors of man to seek such artificial duce like results upon the back. "In aids in the way of clothing, shelter, and the adult male of the gorilla," says ornament, as would ultimately lead to Du Chaillu, “ the chest is bare. In the many of our existing arts. We may class young males which I kept in captivity the hairlessness of man, therefore, with it was thinly covered with hair. In the such other apparent disadvantages as female the mammæ have but a slight the helpless infancy of his young, which, development and the breast is bare." by necessitating greater care and affecAll this helps us to see how the first tion, indirectly produces new faculties steps in the sexually selective process and stronger bonds of uni and ultimight have taken place, and also why mately brings about the existence of the trunk is on the whole more denuded the family and the tribe or nation. And than the legs. As for the exceptional if we look back at the peculiarities which fact that the arms are hairier on the distinguish placental from implacental back than in front, besides the functional mammals, the mammalia generally from explanation already given, we must rec- birds, and birds from reptiles, we shall ollect that the anthropoid apes have see that in every case exactly similar aplong hair on the outer side of the arms, parent disadvantages have been mainly which has probably left this slight me- instrumental in producing the higher mento of its former existence on the hu- faculties of each successive vertebrate man subject. Eschricht has pointed development. Hence it would seem out the curious fact that alike in man that the hairless condition of man, in
stead of requiring for its explanation a
special intervention of some supernatu*. The mutilations of the face and other parts, ral agent, is strictly in accordance with which often make savages so ugly in our eyes, a universal principle, which has brought though not in their own, are due, as Mr. about all the best and highest features of Herbert Spencer has shown, not to æsthetic in- the most advanced animal types through tentions, but to originally subordinative tices, as marks of subjection to a conquering the unaided agency of natural selection. king or race.
MADEMOISELLE DE MERSAC.
“How, good fortune ? I don't un
derstand you,” returned the old gentleIN WHICH MR. BARRINGTON LOSES HIS
man rather testily. “Of course we
are here. Where else should we be ?" Love, which set Trojans and Greeks "I feared you might have altered your by the ears of old, involving pious route and gone to Dellys, or somewhere Æneas and many-counselled Ulysses in else," answered Saint-Luc, rather abasha peck of troubles—which led Roman ed. “I thought,” he continued, apolAntony to his death—which was nearly ogetically, “that as I was unable to becoming the ruin of David, King of Is- start with you, I might venture to folrael-and which, in all ages, has been low as soon as I found myself free; the cause of many a wise man's doing so I set out from Algiers yesterday many a foolish thing-love it was that morning-and here I am.' had led Saint-Luc-a person noted for
"So I perceive,'
grunted M. de his tact and good sense-into the stupid Fontvieille, not at all mollified ; "and blunder of thrusting himself into the charmed as I am to see you, monsieur, company of four people who were per- I can only regret that you should have fectly happy together without him. put yourself to so much' inconvenience,
The very thought, indeed, which in for I fear you will have had your ride his normal state of mind would have for your pains. We start on our return kept him from tacking himself on to the journey early to-morrow morning, party-namely, a strong suspicion that Heaven be praised! I confess that he was not wanted-had now exercised years have deprived me of all taste for a directly opposite influence upon him. rough travelling.” A perpetual vision of Jeanne and Mr. Bar- "To-morrow morning !" echoed rington wandering together in wild Kaby- Saint-Luc, rather blankly. “H'm !lian solitudes had so beset him by day nothing can be more certain than that and driven sleep from his pillow by night, my horse will not be in a state to leave ever since he had found himself alone the stable for another four-and-twenty in Algiers, that at last he could bear it hours at least. But I can easily get him no longer, and, feeling that reality could sent back from here in a day or two,” have no pangs in store for him more bit- he added, brightening. “ Perhaps you ter than those of imagination, he packed would kindly allow me to take a seat in what clothes he required into a small your carriage.
your carriage. Or would that incomvalise, strapped it on to the front of his mode you too much ?” saddle, and galloped off on the track of Poor M. de Fontvieille was not in the the wanderers. And so, having done best of tempers. As he had said, he was the distance in a much shorter time than no longer of an age to enjoy roughing a prudent man would have allowed, he it, and any pleasure he might have dereached Fort Napoléon at length, and rived from the contemplation of fine earned a chill welcome for himself and a scenery had been completely neutralised pair of puffy forelegs for his horse. of late by the discovery of the growing
M. de Fontvieille, who happened to intimacy between Jeanne and the Engbe standing at the door of the little inn, lishman. Moreover, he had been kept enjoying the evening air, pulled a wrywaiting more than half an hour for his face when he recognised the impetuous dinner, and the inopportune appearance horseman who drew rein beside him. of Saint-Luc was, at this especial mo
“What-is it you, M. le Vicomte ?" ment, almost too much for him. “The he cried, in anything but a joyous tone. carriage does not belong to me," he re
Saint-Luc did not seem to notice any plied crossly ; “but I dare say that want of cordiality in his reception. He Léon will have no objection to your swung himself out of the saddle, and taking a place in it; it is made to hold held out his hand, exclaiming
six people at a pinch, I believe. For “What good fortune that I find you myself, I have hitherto sat on the box, still here !"
and I intend to do so for the remainder