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the intensely interesting nature of the subjects of it, is not imitation of nature, but an ideal it discusses. “There is probably no book in representation of such selected particulars as any language which gives so full, so clear, and appeal to the artist's taste or fancy. This propso perfectly intelligible an account of the earl. osition is enlarged upon and emphasized in ier stages of the development of animals. every possible way and with much ingenuity The phenomena described are, as compared of illustration, and in grasping it with full and with the later stages of development, simple clear comprehension of its bearing and signifi. and easily followed, but it is impossible to ex- cance, the reader catches the principal purpose aggerate their importance; and as enabling of the author in writing his very interesting any intelligent person to obtain a correct and instructive book, knowledge of the facts of this wonderful his- The volume is embellished with nine illustratory in its earlier, and a correct conception of tions after Turner's sketches, etched by A. their general outlines and bearing in their Brunet-Debaines. later and more complex stages, the work is one of the most important in the English lan- Wild LIFE IN A SOUTHERN COUNTY. Bosguage. Its faults are diffuseness of style and
ton: Roberts Bros. complexity of general arrangement, and a competent editor would be able to condense it The author of this book has been compared into one half the bulk without curtailing it of
as to literary quality with White of Selbourne any important matter. It is nevertheless most
and old Izaak Walton, and certainly the reacceptable even as it is, and should be studied semblance is very noticeable. There is the by every one who wishes to appreciate the full same hearty, objective love of nature for its meaning of the familiar saying, that
own sake, the same faculty of minute and exfearfully and wonderfully made."
act observation, the same 'genius for details,
and a similar power of picturesque and pleasTue LIFE OF J. M. W. TURNER, R.A.
ing description. There is also that piquant Philip Gilbert Hamerton. Boston : Roberts
flavor of an interesting and original personality Bros.
behind the recorded observations which constiThe public which is already acquainted with tules one of the principal charms of the older Mr. Hamerton's great and peculiar merits as authors. Regarded merely as literature there an art-critic will not be disappointed at finding are few things more delightful and appetizing, that the present work is less a biography than though there is a marked absence in the case a treatise on the aim, function, and limitation of all three of the authors named of any strainof pictorial art. It gives as complete an ac- ing after literary effect. count of the great artist's life and career as The author of “Wild Life' lives in an ancient the present very imperfect state of our knowl- farm-house situated at the verge of a small edge of him permits ; but Mr. Hamerton states hamlet in one of the southern counties of Engat the very beginning that he has been “ the land, and the area of his observations emmore willing to write a biography of Turner braces only his farm, the hamlet, and the counthat it is impossible to study him without en- try immediately adjacent. That material of countering the greatest of all problems in art- sufficient quantity to fill a volume could be criticism, the relation of Art to Nature.” Of found in such a limited area is in itself a surall landscape-painters Turner, says Mr. Ham- prising fact, even if we should make considererton, “is at once the most comprehensive in able allowance for “ padding ;' but the author his study of nature and the most independent has not only filled a volume without apparent of nature, the most observant of truth and effort, but has made it of fascinating interest also, in a certain sense, the most untrue. from beginning to end. The forms and more. This double life of Turner, as observer and ments of clouds, the phenomena of rain and artist, compels us to distinguish between art mists, the conformation of the country, the and mere observation from the very beginning, pathway of the brook from its spring on the under peril of falling into snares which the hillside to the lakelet in the valley, the situasubject itself has laid for us. We must under- tion and characteristics of woods, the varied stand that Art and Nature are not the same attractions of fruit-trees and flowers, and the world, but two worlds which only resemble teeming life of insects, birds, fishes, and such each other, and have many things in common. wild animals as are left in a long-settled counTurner, with the instinct of genius, understood try--all these in turn engage his attention, and this from the first."
there is no one of them about which he does This passage furnishes the key-note to the not tell something at once fresh and interestentire book ; Mr. Hamerton using Turner's pic- ing. No book with which we are acquainted tures and method of work as a text from which conveys so impressively the oft-reiterated lesto expound and enforce the doctrine that art- son that the things immediately about us poslandscape art in common with all other forms sess an inexhaustible interest for the eye that two or three things indifferently, and a hunhas been unavoidably delayed. We are, however, now in a position to state that the book
can really observe and the mind that can in- The growing interest in Heine, and the terpret them.
favorable reception accorded to the volume of THE SECRET OF SUCCESS; OR, How to Get selections under the title of “Wit, Wisdom,
ON IN THE WORLD. By W. H. Davenport and Pathos of Heine,” recently published, Adams. American Edition, edited by P. have induced Mr. Snodgrass to proceed to the G. H. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons.
translation of some of the complete works,
which it is proposed to publish in volumes of The title of this book seems to promise
convenient and not too bulky form. The series something which its contents do not provide ;
will protably commence with the “ Reisebut the author is careful at the very beginning bilder," or with one of the books “On Gercf his preface to acknowledge that he has no
many.' special secret to disclose, and that in point of fact, there is no royal road to success any
MONSIGNOR ALFONSO CAPECELATRO has been more than there is to learning. The book appointed Prefect of the Vatican Library in would be much more accurately described if it the place of Cardinal Pecci, recently raised to were entitled “How to deserve Success,” and the cardinalate by his brother the Pope. Monit devotes quite as much space to impressing signor Capecelatro belongs to a very distinupon the reader the futility and mistake of guished Neapolitan family, is a man of great what is ordinarily called success, and the neces- learning, and is well known as the author of sity of distinguishing between true and false the “Storia di San Pier Damiano e del suo success, as to telling him how to get on in the Tempo;" he has also published a work on world. The advice and the doctrine are for Cardinal Newman. At the time of the last the most part sound and judicious, and far Council the new Prefect wrote a pamphlet, more likely to be really useful than any quack which, on account of its liberal views, was not suggestions as to practical methods of success; approved of by the Curia ; it is to be hoped but they have the disadvantage of being in the that the same liberal tendency may be displaylast degree hackneyed and commonplace. ed in arrangements to make the literary treasThe attraction of the book, however, lies, notures of the Vatican more accessible than has in its exhortations or its teachings but in the been the custom heretofore. personal sketches and anecdotes with which these teachings are illustrated. Mr. Adams Macaulay's essay on Frederick the Great. “I
LORD JEFFREY had a very high opinion of adroitly enforces his points by citing pertinent examples from the lives and achievements of “whether I do not think it the very best thing
not sure," he wrote to Mr. Napier, successful men, and in gathering them he has Macaulay has yet written, and I am quite cerindustriously gleaned the records of both Eng. tain that no other man alive (and I am half inland and America. Merely for copiousness the clined to add that ever lived) could write any collection of anecdotes would be remarkable, thing of the kind so well.” Macaulay's opinand they are told with the spirit and vigor and ion of Jeffrey's selected essays is given in animation of a genuine raconteur,
Trevelyan's life of him, but as it was expressed in a private letter to Mr. Napier, it is worth
quoting here with what Jeffrey says of MacauFOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. lay. “I think,” he says, "that there are few The late William Howitt has left an autobi- things in the four volumes which one or two ography which is almost sufficiently advanced do not
think that any one man except Jeffrey,
other men could not have done as well, but I for publication.
nay that any three men, could have produced The British Museum has lately acqured the such diversified excellence. When I compare remainder of the tablets found at Hillah ; some him with Sydney and myself, I feel with huof them are of great interest.
mility, perfectly sincere that his range is imMR. SWINBURNE is giving much of his atten- measurably wider than ours, and this is only tion to studies of the Elizabethan drama and
as a writer. But he is not only a writer, he Shakespearean literature. They will appear has been a great advocate, and he is a great probably in the proposed Dramatic Dictionary. judge. Take him all in all, I think him more
The selection from the letters of Charles nearly an universal genius than any man of Dickens which Miss Hogarth and Miss Dick
our time. Certainly far more nearly than ens are preparing was to have seen the light Brougham, much as Brougham affects the in the spring, but the publication of the work character. Brougham does one thing well,
dred things detestably.” will be out some time in the autumn -at any Messrs. C. KEGAN PAUL AND Co. are prerate before Christmas.--Athenæum.
paring for publication a series of books which
will treat of the Principles, Methods, and His- 6.34 per cent. The author remarks that here tory of Education, and will aim at affording again the variation would be less if the untrustworthy information with respect to the avoidable error of the areometric determinadifferent systems of instruction adopted in Eu- tion of salt could be eliminated. There are rope and America. While the area of subjects grounds, however, for believing that the which this series is intended to cover will be amount of sulphuric acid present in water is sufficiently wide to give to it the completeness somewhat less constant than the amount of of a Cyclopædia of Education, each subject chlorine. On the other hand, attention must will be discussed with that reference to practi- be directed to the fact that any regular variacal details which its relations to school man- tion in the properties of sulphuric acid, deagement may require. In the composition of pending on the place or the depth from which the several volumes, the requirements of the water has been taken, was not observed. teachers in secondary as well as primary The determinations of calcium carbonate were schools will be carefully kept in view ; and, made in thirty-nine samples of water. The while due attention will be given to the discus- mean result was in 10,000 parts of water 0.269 sion of Elementary Subjects,” an attempt parts of lime carbonate, the maximum being will be made to explain the best methods of 0.312 parts, and the minimum 0.220 parts. teaching those branches of knowledge which So far from referring these variations in the reare included in the curricula of higher classical sults to differences in the sources whence the and modern schools. The various volumes waters were taken, or regarding them as indiwill be written by experienced teachers or by cations of any other change, the author asspecialists who have devoted much time and cribes them to errors of experiment which bestudy to the 'subjects of which they will treat, came the greater in these cases from the fact and the whole series will be under the editorial of his having a more limited quantity of water care of Mr. Philip Magnus.
to work with (less than one litre) than is desirable for experiments of these kinds. The results are very accordant when compared with
the hitherto published analyses. They support SCIENCE AND ART.
the view held by the author that the amount of
lime carbonate present in sea-water shows but The CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SEA-WATER,
slight variation. His results do not accord - Jacobsen has set himself the task of deciding
with those of J. Davy, who believed that the the question whether the composition of sea
open sea contained little or no lime carbonate. water taken from different seas and oceans,
And we are, moreover, not driven to believe and different depths, possessed the same com
the views pronounced by Forchhammer, that position, and whether the discrepancies ob
the sea animals which have shells are able to served in analyses were due to errors of man
convert the lime sulphate of sea-water into ipulation. For this purpose he examined the
carbonate. The waters of different regions composition of forty-six specimens of sea
appear to mix very rapidly and readily. water, collected on board thc “Gazelle" during the expedition of 1874-1876, for every pos- A NEW SCIENCE.-An Austrian professor sible locality and depth. The constituents has come forward as the discoverer of a new which were determined were chlorine, sul- science. He has approached humanity with a phuric acid, and calcium carbonate. The measuring tape, and now publishes the results chlorine showed only a very slight variation ; of his laborious investigations. All science is the salt corresponding to the chlorine amount- built up more or less on statistics, and Professor ed in the highest case to 1.8140, in the lowest Weisbach has laid the foundation of what he case to 1.8047, the mean being 1.80936. The himself calls Anterropometry.” He has chlorine was determined in fifteen specimens. divided the human race into nineteen different When it is remembered that these results are peoples, and, collecting his inferences from a influenced by the unavoidable errors of chlo- sufficient number of individuals, has published rine determinations and the determination of his knowledge in a tabulated form. The points salt, one will not be disposed to ascribe to the which he has selected for illustrating his found irregular variations any significance of theories seem curiously chosen. The length weight, but will not hesitate to say that the of the body, the circumference of the head, the relative amounts of chlorine contained in oce- proportions of the nose, the relation of the arm anic waters show no considerable variation. as compared with other limbs, and the rapidity The sulphuric acid was determined in 166 of pulsation are the chief centres of his system. specimens of water. It constituted in the mean For example, in the matter of rapidity of pulse 6.493 per cent of the entire salt present ; the he thus catalogues humanity. The dullest cirgreatest difference (0.35 per cent) lay between culation seems to belong to the negroes of the maximum 6.69 per cent and the minimum Congo, who have 62 pulsations in a minute. After them come the Hottentots, with 64, the QUEEN-Bees.-In a paper read to the QueKaffirs 70, the Northern Slavs 72, the Siamese kett Microscopical Club at a recent meeting, Mr. 74, the Jews 77, the Sandwich Islanders 78, J. Hunter states that a fertile queen-bee will and the Nicobars 84. In matters of height the in four years lay a million eggs. Twenty-one shortest people in the world—not being actual- days are required for the production of a works ly dwarfs—are the Hottentots, the average er-bee ; " but the same egg that produced the height, in millimetres, being 1.287. Then fol- worker in twenty-one days could, had the bees low the Japanese at 1.569, the Jews 1,599, the been so minded, have been bred up to a queen in Australians 1.617, the Slavs 1.671, the North- sixteen days. The bees," continues Mr. Hunter, ern Chinese 1,675, the Kaffirs 1.753, and the “only rear queens when necessity calls for them, Maoris 1.757. These figures may be instruc- either from loss of their old monarch or appretively compared with recognized European al- hended swarming. If I remove the queen from a titudes, which the professor exhibits in a paral- hive, the first of these contingencies occurs, and lel column. The results are curious, and es- after a few hours' commotion, the bees select tablish incontestably the superiority of northern certain of the worker-eggs, or even young larvæ races. The Norwegians are the tallest, but two or three days old. The cell is enlarged to they are not as tall as the Maoris, the average five or six times its ordinary capacity ; a supheights being relatively 1.728 and 1.757. The erabundance of totally different food is supScotch come next 'at 1.708, then the Swedes, plied ; and the result is that, in five days less 1.700, then the English at 1.690, and next fol. than would have been required for a worker, a low the Danes 1.685, the Germans 1.680, the queen is hatched. The marvel is inexplicable. French 1.667, the Italians and the Portuguese. How a mere change and greater abundance It is found that largeness of head is generally of food and a more roomy lodging, should so in inverse ratio to length of body; not that tall transform the internal and external organs of men have little heads so much as that tall any living creature ! The case is without a races have small heads, the only exceptions parallel in all the animal creation. It is not a being the Patagonians, whose great height is mere superficial change that has been effected ; not deformed by insignificant brain. The va- but one that penetrates far below form and riations of nose are more. remarkable than structure, to the very fountain of life itself. It those of any other organ which the 'professor is a transformation alike of function, of struchas measured. The Jews and the Patagonians ture, and of instinct." head the list, the average in millimetres being 71; the nearest are the Maoris at 52, and the
A CHINESE TILE FACTORY.-A corresponfarthest the Australians at 30, while in breadth dent of The London Builder in a recent acof nostril the list must be read upside down ; count of his visit to one of the mining districts it commences with the Australians at 52, and of China, thus describes the Imperial tile manends with the Jews at 34. For torso and ufactory at Lien li ku, about fifteen miles west breadth of chest the American Indians surpass of Pekin : all other people, while it is recorded of the “In this factory all the yellow 'tiles and Africans, and especially of the Congo negroes,
bricks required for Imperial buildings are that the relative proportion between length of made, as also large numbers of green, blue, arm and length of leg is in their case com- and other colored tiles for various ornamental pletely inverted.—Globe.
purposes. The material used is a hard blue
shale, nearly as hard as slate. This is allowTHE HEAT OF THE SUN.-The Journal of ed to lie in heaps for some time. It is then the Royal Geological Society of Ireland, for ground to powder by granite rollers, on a stone 1877-8, contains a remarkable paper, by the floor thirty to forty feet in diameter. The Rev. Samuel Haughton, “On the Total An- powder is then stored in heaps and taken to nual Heat received at each Point of the Earth's the works as required. For ordinary work the Surface from the Sun,” etc. The Sun's annual powder is mixed with a proper proportion of heat is computed as equivalent to the melting water and moulded into large bricks, which of 80 feet of ice. It is not easy in a short are laid out to dry for some hours, after which paragraph, says the Atheneum, to give the they are dealt with by the modellers. When results of an elaborate mathematical examina- bricks are to have a moulding 'on them, say tion, but it is determined that'" the work done for coping a wall, the plan of operation is as in melting i cubic foot of ice would suffice to follows : Two pieces of wood, each cut to the crush into powder 4 cubic feet of rock," shape of the moulding, are placed upright on a which is equal to the geological work done in slab. The clay brick is placed between them, 3090 years; and it is inferred that “one foot and two men run the mouldings roughly along of ice (representing sun heat) would account with chisels. They then apply straight edges for the present geological work for 12,360 to test the accuracy of their work, and finally years."
rub the edges with moulds somewhat in the
same way as plasterers make mouldings at ful machinery in motion, at his workship in home. The brick is then passed to a third Philadelphia, without the employment of any man, who cuts any necessary holes in it, and of the usual forces, and the experiments were to a fourth, who trims it off and repairs any watched by many practical men-among defect. The more ornamental tiles and bricks, others, as we remember, by the managers of representing fabulous animals, etc., are first two or three of the great steamship lines. roughly moulded, and afterwards finished off What was his secret? Some said electricity, with tools exactly similar to those used for others compressed air. There were many who modelling in clay in Europe. Some of this did not hesitate to assert that the whole affair work has some pretension to artistic merit.
a fraud." For months together nothing All the bricks and tiles are baked in ovens, more was heard of it. At last we learn from and then, after having the glaze put on, are the New York World that the invention, what. baked a second time. All the work done at this ever it may be, is very near completion. A cormanufactory appears to be first-rate, and the respondent, who has recently seen the machine number of people employed when they are at work, confirms our own recollection of it, busy in about 500.
namely, that the only motive power visible is
contained in a glass of water. With this Mr. RE-PLANTING TEETH.-Can teeth be trans- Keely can produce a pressure of 20,000 lbs. to planted ? If recent accounts of operations by the square inch. We do not profess to explain dentists are trustworthy, the answer must be it, nor are we even prepared to avow entire in the affirmative. But the question has been faith in it. We only know that the force is there, formally discussed at a meeting of the Odonto- and that the machinery set in motion by it was logical Society, and from this we learn that it built by some of the best known firms in the was in replanting (which is not the same thing United States. If there is any imposture in as transplanting), that the foreign dentists, the experiments, no one has yet been able to whose names had been cited, achieved their trace it.— The Weck,
Among them, a Frenchman, Dr. Magitot, has published full particulars of cases
THE WRITING TELEGRAPH.-Among recent in which diseased teeth were taken out, and inventions, the Writing Telegraph is remarkthe root or a portion of periosteum was cut
able for the combination of philosophical prinaway, and then were replanted in the same
ciples and ingenious mechanical devices by socket, where, after a few days or weeks,
which its inventor, Mr. E. A. Cowper, can exthey became firm and serviceable. Out of cite a pen thirty miles distant, or more, from sixty-three operations in four years, five were
his hand to write in distinct and legible charfailures ; but some of the cures were painful
acters the message which he wishes to commuand tedious, owing to local discharge. In tech
nicate. The sending instrument, at the hither nical phraseology, Dr. Magitot holds “the in- end of the line wire is provided with a coiled dications for an operation to be the existence band of paper, which uncoils (by mechanism) of chronic periostitis of the apex of the root,
as the operator writes his message with a verits denudation, and absorption of its surface.
tical pencil. To this pencil are jointed “con... The resection of this, which plays the part
tact rods," which, as their name indicates, play of irritant, is the essential aim of the operation.
an important part in the reproduction of the And the extraction having been performed with
message at the farther end, where a glass pen due care, if no other lesion be detected save
moving up or down, backward or forward, in the alteration in the apex of the root, the tooth
exact obedience to the hand of the distant is to be replaced as soon as this has been ex
sender, records it in ink, also on a revolving cised and smoothed, and the hemorrhage has
band of paper.
So sensitive is the mechanceased."
ism, that differences of handwriting are imme
diately shown as dffierent persons manipulate A New FORCE. -For a long time past, as the pencil. In consequence of the continual some of our readers may have heard, there has uncoiling of the paper, new beginners find it been great talk about a new“ motor” which is difficult to avoid leaving gaps in their a's, o's, alleged to have been discovered by a man and m's ; but this is soon overcome by prac. named Keely, living in Philadelphia. Origin- tice, and the words as they pass from under ally, we believe, Mr. Keely promised to enable the mysteriously moving pen appear clear, the largest steamship to cross the Atlantic with bold, and unbroken. The result is so comno greater motive power than could be sup- plete, that the instrument is, so to speak, inrestplied by a bucket of water-no coals, no fur- ed with a charm which inspires an onlooker naces, nv fire of any kind would be required. with surprise and admiration. This seems a romance, but there was something The importance of this invention must be more than imagination in it. Mr. Keely un- our excuse for thus again referring to it in questionably managed to set very power- these columns.