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year, whose produce was
the soil he tills. Nor can he be reeighth of that of its predecessor. The proached here with unthrifty husbandry, masses of grapes that load the vines in for on the southern declivities the an abundant season are a marvel to ground has been laboriously and painNorthern eyes. The whole country is fully terraced up to render possible the garlanded and festooned as if for a tri- cultivation of vines and olives ; and if umph of Bacchus, and one no longer the chestnut, which requires little tendwonders that the Tuscan's favorite oath ance, has usurped the rest of the soil, it should be by the divinity who treats him may be said in its defence, that it is Naso handsomely. In very productive ture's save-all, and grows where no other seasons, however, the quality of the plant would find footing. Short of the wine is generally below the average, as absolutely vertical, no steep seems too the grapes do not ripen simultaneously, abrupt for it to clothe, no hanging raand the peasants are impatient to gather vine too rugged, no rocky shelf too narthem prematurely for fear of thieves. row, for it to grow and prosper there. Indeed the wine is always poor, though As hardy as the mountain pine, as fruitthe grapes are large and well flavored, ful as the sun-pampered olive, it braves and the system practised in Tuscany, the bleakest gales of the wind-swept called il governo del vino, which consists Apennine ; and where the scanty earth in adding a portion of the grapes, re- seems to grudge a sustenance to man, it served for that purpose, after the first bears aloft a harvest on its branches. fermentation has set in, does not recom- The most long-suffering of trees, it will, mend itself by its results. The Ameri- if cut down, send forth anew fruitful can vine, as it called, has been intro- suckers, and will still bring forth its duced among the mountains, and pro- prickly clusters when its stem is all duces a wonderful fruit, like a grape scooped away by age and nothing but a filled with the quintessence of strawber- shell of bark remains to carry the sap ries or pineapples. The epicure who up to its crown. has not tasted uva fragola has still a The chestnut harvest, which takes new sensation in store for his palate. place in October, is the great event of The wine made from them does not keep the year in the Apennines, and furnishes at all, so they are only grown for the a recreation, rather than a task, to all fruit market.
classes of the population. The schools From the mountain slopes the eye is have their annual vacation in that month, sometimes caught by a belt of white that the children may assist in it; and poplars, fringing the bed of a stream, it is difficult to find hands for any extra and conspicuous amid the luxuriant ver- household work while a pleasant gipsy dure of the valley by their silvery bark life goes on under the trees. and foliage. From their close pithy woods are then alive with merry parties übre is made the finest quality of paper picking the mahogany-brown nuts from turned out by Cini's great factory at among the fallen leaves and dropping San Marcello, the capital of the Apen- them into long canvas pouches slung at nine of Pistoia ; and carts laden with the waist for the purpose. The boughs the trunks, sawn into equal lengths, are are never shaken to detach them, and often to be met on their way up the Val the burrs fall singly as they ripen, rustdi Lima. The Lima itself is studded ling through the leaves, and breaking with a series of ruder mills for making the forest silence with a heavy thud, as the roughest sort of brown paper, from they strike the ground. They lie till maize straw-a manufacture which has picked up from day to day, during the existed in this valley from the sixteenth appointed time for gathering them, which century, and is the only one carried on lasts a month, and is fixed by municipal there.
proclamation-commonly from MichaelFarms let on the mezzeria system are mas Day, September 29th, to the feast of to be found in the lower ground, even Saints Simon and Jude, October 28th, up to the foot of the hills ; but slope but sometimes extended by special reand mountain, with their mantle of quest, if the season be unusually late, fruitful forest, are the peasant's sole for ten days longer. Any one wanderproperty, where he is absolute lord of ing off the recognized paths through the
woods during that period is liable to be the smoke of the fire lit to extract the shot by the proprietor, as in the Swiss moisture from the fresh chestnuts esvineyards in vintage time, but this san- capes through all the interstices of the guinary law seems to remain a dead let- roof and walls. From the drying-house ter. After the legal term has expired, they are taken to the mill and ground the woods are free to the whole world, into farina dolce, a fine meal, of pinkish and are invaded by troops of beggars, color and sickly sweet flavor, which gleaning any chance belated chestnuts, forms the staple food of the population. which, falling now, are the prize of the From this they make polenta or porfirst comer. Those which drop at any ridge, in other districts made from Intime on a road passable for wheeled ve- dian meal, and necci, round cakes baked hicles are also public property, and as between chestnut-leaves, which are kept the highway runs through chestnut and dried for the purpose, with the rewoods the poor have a little harvest by sult of imparting a slightly pungent the roadside.
flavor of smoke that the stranger will The proprietors of woods too exten- hardly find an improvement. Other sive for the gathering to be done by the delicacies, too, are made from the chestmembers of their own household, en- nut flour, such as cakes covered with gage a number of girls to assist, giving chocolate and sugar, but none are likely them food and lodging for forty days, to commend themselves to Northern and to each two sacks of chestnut flour palates. on her departure. After their day's But to the simple taste of the mounwork in the woods they are expected to taineer his homely fare seems sweeter spin or weave in the evening for the than all rare foreign viands, as his nabenefit of the housewife, who thus gets tive crag is dearer than the great capiher winter supply of yarn or linen pret- tals of the modern world. He asks ty well advanced in this month. The nothing from civilization, and renounces poorer girls look forward to being em- the present and the future to live alone ployed in this way as a great treat, and with the past, which he clings to, withwill often throw up other occupations out knowing it. For the force of assorather than lose it. In a fine season it ciation cannot count for much in a comis indeed sufficiently pleasant, for the munity whose history, as we have seen, lovely weather of a dry October among is limited by the memory of the living. these Tuscan highlands makes open-air Yet the dweller in the Tuscan Apenlife unalloyed pleasure ; but, on the nine, and in the mountain regions other hand, one can hardly conjure up a throughout Italy, remains immovably more dismal picture than that presented fixed, of his own free choice, to the crag by the dripping chestnut woods if the platform, whither his ancestors were autumn rains have chosen that month driven for refuge by the exigencies of for their own, when the sheeting floods their time, and accepts the necessity of of heaven thresh down the withered a thousand years ago as the unchangealeaves as they fall, and the soaked burrs ble condition of to-day. The inhabihave to be fished out of the swirling yel- tants of other countries have gradually low torrents that furrow the ground in abandoned the strong places originally all directions.
built on by their forefathers, as increased Wet or dry, however, October, unless security made self-defence unnecessary, the yield be exceptionally scanty, is a and increased intercourse made accessi
of abundance and rejoicing bility desirable and profitable. Not so through the country, while the peasants the Italian, in whom the tenacity of traconsume the fresh chestnuts by the dition and long-inherited usage is sackful, not roasted, as they are eaten stronger than the love of convenience, in the cities, but plainly boiled and of gain, or even of safety. The towns eaten hot from the husk. The great at the base of Vesuvius, buried beneath mass are spread on the floors of the the devastating lava, rise from their drying-houses--blind, deserted-looking ruins ere yet the fiery flood is cold above buildings, scattered through the woods them ; and while for Pompeii, Hercufor this purpose, and which in the au- laneum, and Stabia there was in the tumn seem to smoulder internally, as Roman time no resurrection, Resina,
Torre del Greco, and San Sebastiano reaches it save the hoarse roar of the are by the modern Italians rebuilt as tawny torrents below, or the shrill whisoften as destroyed. Luzzano in the tie of the tramontana sweeping on it Apennines, carried down the mountain- from some frigid zone of space. Then side by a landslip, which buried or swept the water must be drawn across the into the Lima sixty-three houses and snow, or up streets slippery with icy three churches, was re-erected on its mud, and footing is difficult in the steep former site, though not of its former woods, where firewood, fortunately not size, by the inhabitants, as soon as they scarce, must be gathered for the long, began to recover from the first stupefac- cold nights. But the winter, though tion of the calamity. There is much to sharp, is brief, and once Christmas has be said for the mountaineer's attach- come and gone, spring is not far off ; inent to his lofty dwelling, and apart when the snow melts, the flowers break from the abstract question involved in from the ground, the corn shoots fast, weighing the pains against the penalties the chestnuts are green with promise, of progress, it is at least open to doubt and summer is close at hand to bring whether he would not lose more than he life and animation once more to the would gain by descending to the valley, highlands of the Apennines. and whether the exhilarating breadth of I shall not easily forget my last light and air, the glorious amplitude of glimpse of one of these villages, and hanging panorama which reward his as- only wish I could make the reader see cent, do not more than compensate for the picture of it impressed on my memits fatigue. Modern fashion at least ory. It was early on an October mornseems to say so, as it goes higher and ing, and a damp river fog had settled higher in search of oxygen and scenery, thickly on the valley, completely shutand requires its summer haunts as many ting out the mountains at either side. thousand feet above the level of the sea Overhead, however, the sky was clear, as is compatible with a due regard to and suddenly, as the heavy swathes of creature comforts. The most enthusi- mist floated aside, there gleamed out, astic advocate of mountain air might, like a rosy crown of morning glory, sole however, shudder at the prospect before in that upper blue, a fairy city, with the Apennine villager, when the winter battlements and towers all flushed as settles down on his home; when the they faced the newly risen sun. The chestnuts have been gathered and dried, Fata Morgana never reared for herself the new wine made and tasted ; when an air-built castle of more visionary as the younger men are gone to the me- pect, yet it was but La Rocca, the dwelltropolis or the Maremma, leaving the ing of a few hundred poor mountainold, the helpless, and the feeble to eers, that thus showed for a moment, await their return; and the snow, with isolated above the clouds, transfigured gradual and noiseless footsteps, steals by the sunrise, and hung, like a glowing down from the higher peaks on the lone- carcanet, on the very brow of heaven. ly village, wrapping it in a shroud of For a moment only : the next, a fresh stillness and isolation. Perched then in surge of the mist rose at it, swept past aerial solitude on its unapproachable it, first blotted, then extinguished the pinnacle, it looks down on the valley vision, the dun vapors usurped its place over a thousand feet of steep, bristling in the sky, and the aerial city was seen with leafless forest, while no sound no more.—Cornhill Magazine.
PROUD and lowly, beggar and lord,
Over the bridge they go,
Poverty, pomp, and woe.
Beggar and lord,
Fetter and sword,
Velvet and rags,
So the world wags,
Sparkle, river, merrily roll!
Laugh with the gay and bright;
Under thy arch to-night?
Velvet and rags,
So the world wags,
Fettered and free,
So shall it be,
PROFESSOR JAMES D. DANA.
BY THE EDITOR.
Our portrait this month is of one of sistant to Professor Silliman, whose sucthe most eminent and honored of Amer- cessor he afterward became. ican scientists, whose reputation is as In December, 1836, Mr. Dana was apgreat in Europe as in his own country, pointed mineralogist and geologist of the and who is acknowledged as an author- United States exploring expedition, then ity and original discoverer in the three about to be sent by the Government to important departments of mineralogy, the Southern and Pacific Oceans. The geology, and zoology.
squadron, under command of LieutenJAMES Dwight DANA was born on ant (afterward Commodore) Wilkes, the 12th of February, 1813, at Utica, sailed in August, 1838, and returned in New York, and passed there the first 1842. During the thirteen years followyears of his life. He seems to have had an ing, Professor Dana was chiefly occuearly inclination to the natural sciences, pied in preparing for publication the as at the age of seventeen he entered various reports of this expedition comYale College, attracted by the fame of mitted to his charge. The results of his Professor Silliman (Sr.), the distinguish- labors were given in his “Report on ed pioneer of American science. While Zoöphytes" 4to, with an atlas of 61 there he evinced a special aptitude for folio plates, 1846), in which he proposes mathematics as well as the natural sci- a new classification and describes 230 ences, and shortly after his graduation new species ; the “ Report on the Geolin 1833, he received the appointment of ogy of the Pacific" (with an atlas of teacher of mathematics to midshipmen 21 plates, 1849); and the “Report on in the Navy of the United States. In Crustacea" (4to, with an atlas of 96 folio that capacity he sailed to the Mediterra- plates, 1852-54). In this last named nean in the ship-of-the-line Delaware, re- work 680 species are described, of which turning in 1835. During the two years 658 were These Reports were following he acted at Yale College as as- published by the United States Government, and contributed greatly to that Besides the works already mentioned, high reputation which our official scien- Professor Dana has published “Science tific publications have achieved. With and the Bible," a series of four articles few exceptions, the drawings in the at- which appeared in the Bibliotheca Sacra lases were made by Mr. Dana himself. in 1856-57, called forth by a work of ProIn 1850 Mr. Dana was elected to the fessor Taylor Lewis on the
Six Days office of Silliman Professor of Natural of Creation ;'' “ A System of MineralHistory and Geology in Yale College, ogy,” a work of high repute in Europe but did not enter upon its duties until and America (1837, 5th edition, revised 1855, soon after Professor Silliman's re- and enlarged, 1870); “On Coral Reefs signation of the chair of chemistry and and Islands" (1853); a “Manual of geology. This position he still retains. Geology” (1862, revised edition, 1869); In 1854 he was elected President of the a “ Text Book of Geology for Schools American Association for the Advance- and Academies" (1864); and • Corals ment of Science, having been for many and Coral Islands” (1872). For many years one of the standing committee of years he has been associated with his that body, and in August, 1855, he de- brother-in-law, Professor Benjamin Sillilivered the annual address before that as- man, Jr., as editor and publisher of the sociation at its meeting in Providence. American Journal of Science and Arts, He has been elected a member of many founded in 1819 by the elder Silliman. learned societies in Europe, including To this journal, as well as to the prothe Royal Academies of Sciences in Mu- ceedings of the American Academy of nich and Berlin, the Geological and Lin- Arts and Sciences in Boston, the Lynæan societies in London, the Philoma- ceum of Natural History in New York, thic Society in Paris, and others. In and the Academy of Natural Sciences in 1872, the Wollaston gold medal, in Philadelphia, he has contributed numercharge of the Geological Society of Lon- ous important scientific memoirs, the don, was conferred upon hir.
mere titles of which would fill a column.
Tue Evolution of MAN: A Popular Expo- through a progressive series of more and more
sition of the Principal Points of Human specialized animal types.” Ontogeny and Phylogeny. From the Ger- The present work, he continues, is intend. man of Ernest Haeckel, Professor in the Uni- ed to render the facts of human germ history versity of Jena. In two volumes. New and development accessible to the educated York: D. Appleton & Co.
public. It is founded on the researches of the In a somwhat extended review of this re- most eminent modern anatomists and embrymarkable work contributed to the London ologists—Baer, Kölliker, Schwann, Huxley, Academy, Mr. Alfred Russell Wallace says : Weissmann, and Gegenbaur, together with “ Professor Haeckel is well known as one of Haeckel's own discoveries in the history and the most energetic workers and advanced development of many of the lower animals. thinkers among German biologists. For more We can, therefore, hardly do otherwise than than thirty years he has devoted himself to accept the facts as presented to us by our authe study of the animal kingdom with especial thor, and though we may not always agree reference to the theory of development, and he with the inferences he deduces from them, we has perhaps done as much to extend and pop- can but feel that they are of the very highest ularize that theory as Darwin himself. Besides importance, and that a careful study of them is a long series of publications in various depart. absolutely essential before venturing to form ments of biology, he has written two great definite conclusions as to man's nature, origin, popular works-- The History of Creation, in or destiny." which the development of the whole animal When he comes to discuss the work in detail and vegetable kingdom is systematically traced Mr. Wallace finds several points of radical imout, and the present volumes, which treat in portance upon which he differs in toto from more detail the entire history of man's evolu- Professor Haeckel ; but he concludes by say. tion, both as an individual from the parental ing that no restricted notice of The Evolution germ and as an animal species from the most of Man can afford an adequate conception of rudimentary form of individualized animal life the wonderful variety and complexity, or of