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on his death a few months ago, it was found vocabulary is necessarily the greater, and will that he had left Mr. Gibbon.a handsome lega- therefore be more useful to students of Early cy, and the absolute reversion of his property English. on the death of his wife.
Messrs. MACMILLAN & Co. have in preparaM. Renan's sixth volume of the “ Origines tion a work entitled “The English Poets : Sedu Christianisme,” with the title of 'L'Ég- lections with Critical Introductions,' edited by lise,' is completely in type. The series will, Mr. T. H. Ward, Tutor and late Fellow of however, not be concluded with this volume, Brasenose College, Oxford. The design, which as the author intended. A seventh will follow, is similar to that of Crépet's ' Les Poëtes Fran. which will contain chiefly the history of Marcus çais,' is to provide a really representative seAurelius and of Montanism. The index to the lection from the English poets, other than the seven volumes will be issued separately.
dramatists, from Chaucer to Landor and Prof. DIETERICI, of Berlin, having now fin- Clough. The different poets have been underished collating the Arabic text of the Theology, taken by different writers, who will be responattributed to Aristotle, contained in a Berlin sible for the selections and will add short critiMS., with another to be found in a Paris Ms., cal introductions. By a division of labor of will soon begin to print the work, with a Ger- this kind it is thought that it will be possible to man translation. The value of his edition will produce a fuller and truer impression of the be much enhanced by the list of the technical characteristics of English poetry than it would terms in Arabic, Greek, and German, which he be in the power of any one critic to convey. promises to supply at the end.
The book will be in four volumes, crown octaIn a short time will be published a new and
vo, and it is hoped that the first two volumes much improved Synopsis of the Contents of will be ready before the end of the year. The the British Museum, suggested, we believe, by general introduction will be written by Mr. the present Principal Librarian and Secretary. Matthew Arnold, and the following writers, and issued by order of the Trustees to supply among others, have promised to take part in a comprehensive and trustworthy guide for the the work :-The Dean of St. Paul's, the Dean general visitor to the Museum. It will indicate of Westminster, Sir Henry Taylor, the Rector the most important and characteristic objects of Lincoln, Mr. Stopford Brooke, Prof. Nichol, in each department, and supply much informa
Prof. Skeat, Mr. Thomas Arnold, Mr. Pater, tion which the old Synopsis did not include.
Mr. William Jack, Mr. Andrew Lang, Mr.
Saintsbury, Mr. Edmund Gosse, and Mr. J. C. We hear that the most racy of the six pieces Collins. in Mr. Browning's new volume is to be " Ned Brass," a man given to oaths and ill-conditioned generally, who has been converted by
SCIENCE AND ART. John Bunyan, and yet finds the old flesh striv
THE LUNAR CRATER HYGINUS.-Lord Linding hard against the new spirit, especially in say and Dr. Copeland have made some interthe matter of swearing. “ Pheidippides,” esting and instructive observations on the varywith his splendid couple of runs from Athens ing appearance of the region near Hyginus, to Sparta, in the second of which he gasps out confirming, as they point out, the well-known the news of victory with his dying breath, fact that this region “is full of complicated will recall the well-remembered “How they shallow irregularities and strongly-marked difbrought the good news from Ghent to Aix.”
ferences of tone, which tend together to proProf. SKEAT has done a good service to duce great apparent changes of surface constudents of Early English and the Bible by per- figuration, with change of illumination ; and, suading the delegates of the Clarendon Press
further, to show that there exist striking feato issue in a small stout cheap volume the Pur- tures in the immediate neighborhood which vey, or second and more accurate text of the have hitherto escaped clear detection, but of large quarto Wycliffite Versions of the New which some traces may be found in the comTestament, so faithfully edited by the late Mr. paratively old map of Lohrmann." Their Forshall and Sir Frederic Madden. The boon statements would hardly be intelligible, even is enhanced by a reprint of the admirable Glos- to lunar students, without the drawings which sary to the book, so far as it relates to the New accompany their paper. Let it suffice to obTestament. The Early English Text Society serve, that they fully make out their case ; and had always intended to do this work-under a though their observations have no direct bearnew editor-if the Press would not do it; and ing on Dr. Klein's supposed recognition of a they now rejoice that they are saved the cost new crater in this region, yet indirectly they and labor of the undertaking. We only hope tend to increase the doubt with which the that the success of the reprint of the New Testa- more cautious astronomers had received the ment will soon lead to that of the Old, whose announcement of the reported change. The facts collected also show, as Lord Lindsay and earthquake shocks--he can hear even the slightDr. Copeland say, “with what extreme cau- est manifestations of underground disturbance, tion all presumed evidence of change on the and detect the earliest grumblings of Vesuvius. moon's surface ought to be received, and how
THE INFLUENCE OF BRAIN WORK ON THE necessary it is to accumulate observations made Growth OF THE SKULL AND BRAIN.-Messrs. under various and particularly under low illu- Lacassagne and Cliquet communicated an intermination."
esting paper on the subject to the Société de Méd. LAKE TANGANYIKA.-One of the puzzling Publique et d'hygiène professionnelle. Having problems of Lake Tanganyika would appear to the patients, doctors, attendants, and officers of be at last definitely settled. Lieutenant Cam- the Val de Grace at their disposal, they measeron, we know, asserted that it was drained by ured the heads of 190 doctors of medicine, 133 the Lukuga creek flowing to the westward; soldiers who had received an elementary inbut this view was afterwards combated by Mr. struction, 90 soldiers who could neither read H. M. Stanley, who, however, admitted that nor write, and 91 soldiers who were prisoners. the creek would probably one day form an out. The instrument used was the same which hatlet for the lake. This appears now to be the ters employ in measuring the heads of their cuscase, for Mr. E. C. Hore, the scientific mem- tomers; it is called the conformator, and gives ber of the London Missionary Society's party a very correct idea of the proportions and direcently established at Ujiji, reports that he mensions of the heads in question. ; The rehas been informed by the Arabs there that dur. sults were in favor of the doctors; their frontal ing the last rains the waters of the lake rose so diameter was also much more considerable high that the grass, papyrus, reeds, &c., which than that of the soldiers, &c. Nor are both choked up the course of the Luguka, were en
halves of the head symmetrically developed : tirely swept away, and that the creek is now an in students, the left frontal region is more deoverflowing river. One of these Arabs, in- veloped than the right ; in illiterate individdeed, goes even further, and asserts that he uals, the right occipital region is larger than the went down the river to the Kamolondo lake, left. The authors have derived the following which there is good reason to believe is not a conclusions from their experiments. 1. The lake at all, but a broad part of the upper Lu- heads of students who have worked much with alaba river.-Academy.
their brains are much more developed than
those of illiterate individuals, or such as have EXPERIMENTS WITH THE MICROPHONE.—In experiments with the microphone, the disturb- students, the frontal region is more developed
allowed their brains to remain inactive. 2. In ing effect of local sounds is so great as in many than the occipital region, or, if there should instances to obscure the result. In a paper be any difference in favor of the latter, it is read some months ago at the Physical Society, Professor Hughes stated that he had spoken to ter region is the largest.-- London Medical Rec
very small ; while, in illiterate people, the latforty microphones at once ; and they all
ord. seemed to response with equal force. And on examining every portion of his room-wood,
THE " PERSONAL EQUATION" IN ASTRONOMstone, metal, in fact all parts—and even a piece ICAL OBSERVATIONS.—Mr. Otto Struve, asof india-rubber : all were in molecular move. tronomer at the Imperial Observatory of St. ment whenever he spoke. As yet he has found Petersburg, has discovered that in all his obno such insulator for sound as gutta-percha is servations of stars carried on during thirty-five for electricity. Caoutchouc seems to be the years there is a systematic error. He has asbest ; but whatever the quantity made use of in certained the amount of error by measurements the experiment, the microphone still reported of artificial stars, and can therefore make the all it heard. On this Professor Hughes re- necessary correction to his long series of obmarks : 'The question of insulation has now servations. He supposes that the error has a become one of necessity, as the microphone physiological origin dependent on certain pecuhas opened to us a world of sounds, of the ex- liarities of the eyes ; and he suggests that all istence of which we were unaware. If we can
observers should test themselves rigorously insulate the instrument so as to direct its pow. with a view to accuracy in comparison of obers on any single object, as at present I am able servations. For years past astronomers have to do on a moving fly, it will be possible to in- been accustomed to allow for what they call vestigate that object undisturbed by the pande- the "personal equation" in reconciling dismonium of sounds which at present the micro- crepancies of observation. phone reveals where we thought complete THE VENOM OF SERPENTS.—The poison of silence prevailed.'
serpents has generally been regarded as a sort Professor Palmieri of Naples has found that of poisonous saliva, acting after the fashion of by connecting a microphone and telephone soluble ferments. M. Lacerda, of Rio de with a seismograph-instrument for recording Janeiro, has made some observations upon the
venom of a rattlesnake, which led him to be the minute fragments which gravitate between lieve that this fluid contains formed ferments Mars and Jupiter—asteroids so small that often. analogous to the Bacteria. Placing a drop of times they escape the notice of observers of the poison upon a glass slide previously washed the sun and of eclipses, though some of them with alcohol, and slightly warmed, he exam- may be large enough to be seen under certain ined it under the microscope, and saw
rare conditions. This latter theory is the one of protoplasmic filamentous matter, formed by which we adopt." a cellular aggregation, arranged in an arbores
“Cosmic Dust."-Something further concent form, like that of certain Lycopodiaceæ."
cerning the fall of metallic particles, “ meteoric He observed the 'formation of spores within a
matter"' or “cosmic dust," from the atmosthickened filament, which finally broke up and disappeared setting free the spores, which then phere has been published in the Monthly No
tices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Ceraffected a linear arrangement. He describes
tain observers are of opinion that “it is conthe modes of multiplication of these spores, tinually falling in quantities which, in the lapse namely, by scission and by interior nuclei.
of ages, must accumulate so as materially to The phenomena observed in the blood of
contribute to the matter of the earth's crust." animals killed by the bite of the snake were as follows :—The red globules presented small
Mr. Ranyard, Secretary of the Society, remarks :
There can be little doubt that the air bright points on the surface of the disc ; these
up to a great height above the earth's surface sometimes forined projections, and became more and more numerous. Finally, the glo
is impregnated with dust." And he suggests
that “the blue color of the sky may be caused bule was completely destroyed, and replaced by a number of very brilliant ovoid corpuscles, by dust derived from the fragments of meteors, endowed with spontaneous oscillatory move
the smaller particles of which may possibly ocments ; these ovoid corpuscles did not sepa
cupy months or even years in falling to the rate from the mass of the globules, but re.
earth.” There is reason to believe that a por
tion of this floating dust comes from regions of mained within it, and the globules became fused together to form a very different amorphous space beyond the solar system. The planets paste. Alcohol swallowed, or injected beneath therefore, on their travel through space with the skin, was found to be the best antidote.
the sun, are more exposed to the falling dust
on their northern than on their southern hemiINTRA - MERCURIAL PLANETS.—M. Camille spheres, which may account for the preponderFlammarion, the well-known French astrono- ance of land in the north, and “for the fact mer, has been examining in La Nature the evi- which has been 'so frequently pointed out by dence in favor of intra-mercurial planets, and physical geographers, that the great terrestrial particularly that furnished by Messrs. Watson peninsulas all taper towards the southern pole." and Swift. On the latter M. Flammarion When meteoric masses break up, much ocsays : “While it is possible that the American cluded gas is thrown out, and the quantity will observers saw an intra-mercurial planet, or vary accordingly as the region through which even two, we cannot, in view of the special the earth passes is rich or poor in meteors. In difficulties of the situation, the confusion of the latter case, our atmosphere would decrease figures, and the negative observations of the in height, “ and we should have a temperature other observers, concede it to be an absolute at the sea-level corresponding to the present and incontestable fact that they saw even so temperature of our mountain-tops. In the much as one. The fact is not yet certain," language of geologists, a glacial epoch would After reviewing the whole testimony thus far be the result. If, on the other hand, the earth available on this interesting point, the French pass through a region rich in meteors containwriter sums up as follows: “The hypothesis ing occluded carbonic acid gas, the atmosphere of a single body comparable to Mercury, gravi- would increase in depth, and a period like the tating in close proximity to the sun, and on a
carboniferous period might ensue, in which a plane probably inclined to the solar cquator, semi-tropical vegetation might again flourish seems to us to be so open to objections as to be
on the coasts of Greenland." In these specuuntenable. Still, the mathematical theory of lations thoughtful minds will perhaps find more universal attraction proves that there is a cause
than a passing entertainment. for the retardation observed in the motion of A PowerFUL SPECTROSCOPE.-In the young Mercury, and that this cause cannot be found by science of spectroscopy, as in others, an imaugmenting the mass of Venus-a quantity now portant element of progress is the improvement determined with great exactitude—but must of instruments for dealing with the phenomena be sought for in some disturbing mass between presented, and many minds are engaged on Mercury and the sun. But this mass may not this. A new spectroscope of remarkable power be a planet worthy of the name of planet ; it has just been brought to the notice of the French may consist of a great number of asteroids like Academy by M. Thollon. Its chief feature is
the use of sulphide of carbon prisms, which are those hardy gentlemen have said to the “Ul. closed laterally not by plates with parallel faces, sters" of the present day? or the sealskin jackbut by prisms of the form of Amici's—i.e, hav- ets and coats? Human habit is so much moding curved sides meeting at an angle (which, ified by circumstances, that the adoption of all however, is much smaller than Amici's prism). these safeguards against an occasional chill The refringent angles of these prisms are in an may have a direct tendency to lower the resistopposite direction to that of the sulphide ing power of the constitution. And there are prism. Two of these compound prisms are well-known facts that square with this view. substituted by M. Thollon for the simple prisms Such is the influence on the constitution of the in a spectroscope, which he formerly described prolonged heat of tropical or sub-tropical counto the Academy. Without going into further tries. The inference is not unnatural that the details we may simply state that an enormous greater comfort, as we regard it, at all events dispersion is obtained; with a magnifying the more sustained heat, which we are steadily power of 15 to 20 times, the spectrum has a giving to our abodes, is really tending to lower length of 15 mètres. The angular distance of our constitutional power of resistance, not only the D lines of sodium is about 12', whereas to the great tonic, cold, but to those influences that produced by M. Gassiot was only 3'6". against which that tonic has the prime function This instrument should throw considerable of strengthening the frame.—Builder. light on the structure of the spectrum, and M. Thollon has already noticed some interesting Why so DEPRESSING ?-Unwonted depresfacts. The lines of sodium and magnesium sion and uneasiness, accompanied with loss of present a dark nucleus passing into a'nebulos- appetite and inability to sleep, are the prevaity, which becomes gradually merged in the lent causes of complaint just now among the continuous spectrum. Many lines have been “tolerably well" section of the community ; split up, and all that have been thus resolved and, with a large measure of accuracy, the have been found to belong to two different condition, modified as it is by individual pecusubstances. One of the hydrogen lines pre- liarities of state and idiosyncracies, is attributed sents a nebulosity without a nucleus. M. to the weather. The relations which subsist Thollon remarks on the magnificence of the between such mental depression as constitutes spectrum of carbon fros the electric arc, ob- melancholia and the defective discharge of its served with the new instrument. The spectra functions by the skin may help to explain the of iron, copper, and magnesium in the same phenomenon. The connection of cause and arc were also seen with admirable clearness effect may not be clearly made out, and the and brilliancy. These new spectroscopes have part which the nerve-centres play in the pro. been constructed for M. Thollon by the able duction of the result may be as obscure as optician M. Laurent.
that which they exercise in the control of occasional pigmentary deposits; but the broad fact remains. When the skin does not act freely,
when its functions are seriously impeded or VARIETIES.
arrested, melancholy broods over the mind, just as in the case of a subject of melancholia,
as a formulated disease, the skin becomes dense HOME "COMFORTS" AND THEIR EFFECT ON
and inactive. It is not a random conjecture, HEALTH.-It is not clear, but it may be sus
therefore, that the intense and prolonged, alpected, that there is some element at work, in beit unaccustomed and unexpected, cold and the present state of civilisation, which renders damp work their depressing influences mainly the more gently nurtured, or more highly cultured, members of society specially unfitted to it is one that may with advantage be made just
through the skin. This is a trite remark, but resist malarious influences. Connected with
now, because, in the interests of health-presthis must be borne in mind the manner in
ervation, especial pains need to be taken to which the external atmosphere is more and
secure the freest possible action of the great more kept out from our houses, Doors and
surface system of excretory glands and the transwindows close better, draughts are more care.
uding apparatus generally. : Warmer clothing, fully excluded, than of old. Appliances are in
especially at night, frequent ablutions, with troduced for artificially warming the passages
sufficient friction, and the promotion of skin and vestibules, the natural function of which
activity by every legitimate form of exercise, places is to afford a graduated transition from
are obvious measures of health which every. the warm atmosphere of a chamber to the ex
body ought to understand and all should practernal temperature. Clothing is much more
tice.---Lancet. complex than was formerly the case. In the time of our grandfathers a man was called a A LETTER OF MARTIN LUTHER's.-You puppy if he wore an overcoat. What would have of course all of you heard of Martin Lu
ther, and of the grand work he did more than earth, but also to obtain the after reward of three centuries ago. Many of you will proba- heaven.—Little Folks' Magazine. bly have read the story of his life, and will į The Fall of Empires.--Of all the empires know what a busy and troubled one it was.
whose rise and fall have been recorded in hisBut Luther was a very loving father, and in the midst of all his cares and anxieties found time tory, there is not one that has owed its ruin or
decay to checking the lust of unmeasured territo write long letters to his children. Here is a
torial acquisition. The wisest of the Roman very beautiful one sent by him to his eldest
emperors was also the one who even recalled boy, during the Diet of Augsburg, in 1530 :
the boundaries of his dominions from beyond "Grace and peace be with thee, my dear the Danube. Every one can discern and delittle boy! I rejoice to find that you are at- nounce the private folly of the farmer who covtentive to your lessons and your prayers. Con- ets more and more land, when he has neither tinue to be so, my child, and when I come capital nor skill to turn to account what he has home I will bring you some beautiful things. already got; though he does not commonly I know of a smiling garden, full of children in proceed by covenants taken in the dark lest his golden dresses, who run about under the trees, landlord should come to know what sort of cating apples, pears, cherries, nuts, and plums. deed he is signing. But it requires a steady They jump and sing, and are full of glee, and eye and a firm resolution to maintain the good they have pretty little ponies with golden bridles tradition of all our bygone statesmen at a juncand silver saddles. As I went by this garden, ture when all tradition is discarded for newI asked the owner of it who those children fangled or, as Mr. Roebuck calls them, “origi. were, and he told me they were the good chil- nal” devices, and the mind of folly finds utter. den, who loved to say their prayers, and to ance through the voice of authority. England, learn their lessons, and who fear God. Then which has grown so great, may easily become I said to him, 'Dear sir, I also have a boy, little ; through the effeminate selfishness of little John Luther ; may not he too come to luxurious living ; through neglecting realities at this garden to eat those beautiful apples and home to amuse herself everywhere else in stalk. pears, to ride those pretty little ponies, and to ing phantoms; through putting again on her play with the other children?' And the man resources a strain like that of the great French said, “If he is very good, if he says his pray- war, which brought her people to misery and ers, and learns his lessons willingly and cheer. her throne to peril ; through that denial of fully, he may come, and he may bring with him equal rights to others, which taught us so se. little Philip and little James. Here they will vere a lesson at the epoch of the Armed Neufind fifes and drums and other nice instruments rality. But she will never lose by the modesty to play upon, and they shall dance, and shoot in thought and language, which most of all bewith little crossbows.' Then the man showed seems the greatest of mankind ; never by forme in the midst of the garden a beautiful mea. wardness to allow, and to assert, the equal dow where the children danced. But all this rights of all states and nations ; never by refushappened in the morning before the children ing to be made the tool of foreign cunning for had dined ; so I could not 'stay till the begin- ends alien to her principles and feelings ; never ning of the dance, but I said to the man, 'I by keeping her engagements in due relation to will go and write to my dear little John, and her means, or by husbanding those means for teach him to be good, to say his prayers, and the day of need, and for the noble duty of delearn his lessons, that he may come to this gar- fending, as occasion offers, the cause of public den. But he has an Aunt Magdalene, whom right, and of rational freedom, over the broad he loves very much ; may he bring her with expanse of Christendom.- The Right Hon. W. him?' The man replied, 'Yes ; tell him that L. Gladstone, in the "Nineteenth Century." they may come together.' Be good, therefore, my dear little boy, and tell Philip and
CONSOLATION. James to be good also, that you may all come
When the pale wreath is laid upon the tomb, and play in the beautiful garden. I commit Love's last fond homage offered to the dead, you to the care of God. Give my love to your And the bereft, with tears and drooping head, Aunt Magdalene, and kiss her for me.
Bid mute farewell on sadly turning home,
Sister and brother, widowed love and friend, “From your papa, who loves you,
Review, as in a solemn vision then, “MARTIN LUTHER.”
Their dear one's life, its bliss and bitter pain, The story of the beautiful garden is, of
Its restless hopes now ever at an end.
The common thought lifts them above despair, course, an allegory, as I dare say you will have One brief thanksgiving is on every tongue : imagined, and by its means Luther endeavored That faithful heart shall never more be wrung to impress uopn his little son the desirability
With cold unkindness or with aching care ;
That generous mind no stern rebuffs shall vex; of doing 'good, not only for the sake of the
That busy brain no problems dirc perplex. happiness which is the result of a good life on