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humanity is equal to his wit." Those Akenside, the author of 'The Pleasures who can relish polished satire, delicate of Imagination,' a poem which must aland exquisite humor, will turn again and ways rank among the gems of didactic again to the shabby old volumes, guilt- poetry—a haughty and scholarly soul, less as yet of reprint, which contain one of the few poets of the eighteenth * The History of John Bull,' ' The century who had drunk deep at Greek Treatise Concerning the Altercation or fountains. Had he not frittered away Scolding of the Ancients,' and 'The Art his genius in writing tame lyrics, and of Political Lying. There probably had he devoted himself to satire, he never existed an author more careless might have rivalled the masterpieces about literary distinction; Pope and of Juvenal and Dryden ; so thought Swift had during his lifetime, and have Macaulay, and so will think every one had ever since, the credit of having pro- who turns to the picture of Pulteney, duced much of Arbuthnot's best and mangled and battered in the ruthless most characteristic work. We are for couplets of 'Curio.' Akenside's blank instance as confident that Arbuthnot verse is charming, and we shall have to wrote the introduction and opening go back to the Elizabethan masters 10 chapters of Martinus Scriblerus as if we find anything so plastic, so richly cahad seen the letters wet from his pen. denced, so variously harmonious. His There is no mistaking his touch, and yet ‘Inscriptions' and his ‘Hymn to the every one goes on assigning those master- Naides
Naides are more thoroughly Hellenic ly pages to Swift or Pope. As a man than anything English literature had to this humorist-physician seems to have show since Milton. We wonder they approached perfection as nearly as was are not selected for translations at the ever permitted to our erring race. Well Universities. He appears to have been might the arch cynic exclaim when Ar- more successful as a poet than as a medbuthnot's placid and benevolent figure, ical practitioner, and one of the retorts noble heart, and guileless life came up he got from a recalcitrant patient is before his memory, “ If the world had worth recording. Doctor,” said the but a dozen Arbuthnots in it, I would wag, “after all your remarks, my opinburn my ‘Gulliver's Travels.
ion of your profession is this : the anThere was another future physician, cients endeavored to make it a science “whose humanity was equal to his wit, and failed, and the moderns to make it romping along Irish lanes when Arbuth- a trade and succeeded.” Smollett unnot was passing to his rest down the gratefully introduced him in 'Peregrine dark road which he had brightened for Pickle' as Dr. Smelfungus. so many-for was not Oliver Goldsmith Contemporary with Akenside, and inan M.D. ? But whither are we straying? timately acquainted with him, was Dr. Cowley's slighted ghost whispers that he Armstrong, whose taciturnity has been too— the darling of Dryden's youth" immortalised by Thomson, whose surli-the Pindar of England,“ the lord of ness and cynicism seem to have furthe metaphysical school," the most fas- nished Abernethy with a model, and cinating of English essayists, was one of whose genius is evinced in ‘The Art of the faculty. He did not get much prac- Preserving Health.' He began his tice, we are told : he probably preferred career with 'The Economy of Love,' a the fields of Chertsey and the pleasant poem which speaks more for his honesty rooms of the Royal Society-where he than for his tact and delicacy. Besides could pick up the Reverend Mr. Sprat his chef-d'æuvre just alluded to—a poem for an evening's carouse-to the sick- which in spite of its prolixity abounds chamber and the querulous patient. in really eloquent passages-he produced Lovers of Italian poetry will not forget a volume of essays, a number of medito couple with Cowley Francis Redi, cal treatises, and several miscellaneous whose ‘Bacco in Toscana 'is one of the pieces. He favored the public also with most delightful “ Pindarics" in the some verses which he was pleased to call world. He was for many years Court Imitations of Shakespeare.' physician to Ferdinand II. and Cosmo Next on our list stands Dr. James III. Returning now to the eighteenth Grainger, whose ode on Solitude, century, we must not omit Dr. Mark j:raised so highly by Johnson, who paid the author the high compliment of re- she recognised him by “his old roguish peating " with great energy' the exor- smile." It is this roguish smile that dium, was also one of the favorite poems lights up every page of his writings, of Nathaniel Hawthorne. His didactic plays over all the sordid scenes and dispoem “The Sugar Cane' has gone the mal holes in which his genius too often way of his friend Smart's ‘Hop Gar- loves to linger. He died world-worn, den.' It is a curious monument of exhausted, at Leghorn in 1781, aged the misplaced ingenuity of the eigh- only fifty-one. Could he have held out teenth century. Addison observes of for a year or two longer he would have Virgil that he tosses about his manure ended his toilsome days—and his ardu: with an air of majesty, and poor Grain- ous struggles with poverty-on a handger's attempts to be majestic over re- some estate in the enjoyment of a handceipts for a compost of weeds, mould some competence. Six years before and stale, and over the symptoms and Smollett died there passed away another cure of the yaws, his bathetic line, physician whose memory is still pre“Now, Muse, let's sing of rats," was served at Cambridge by the medals given too much for the gravity of a polite cir- annually for Greek and Latin Odes and cle at Sir Joshua Reynolds's who had Epigrams; this was Sir William Browne. been assembled to hear the poet read his In all the annals of eccentricity it would manuscript. His description, however, be difficult to find his match. He was of a hurricane and earthquake, and his an excellent scholar, and is the author episodic tale of Junio and Theana, have of numberless treatises on literary, pobeen justly commended by Chalmers, litical, and scientific subjects. When but “The Sugar Cane' has, we fear, Foote introduced him in his ' Devil upon sunk below extracts. His version of Two Sticks,' and made him the laughTibullus is sometimes happy, though ing-stock of half London, instead of bewhat poetical powers he had were prob- ing offended the good doctor sent the ably quenched by hack-work and pro- cruel wag a card complimenting him on fessional struggles. He died at St. his successful caricature, but adding Christopher's in December 1767. In that, as he had forgotten his muff, he Tobias Smollett Medicine must recog- took the liberty of sending him the very nise one of its brightest literary orna- one he wore, to complete the resemments, and his admirers are not likely to blance. In his will, which was written complain of the neglect of their favorite, in a medley of Greek, Latin, and Eng. though since Dickens made his appear lish, his devotion to Horace is singularly ance it may be questioned whether there illustrated. On my coffin when in the is any one who could, like Porson, re- grave I desire may be deposited in its peat whole scenes from his novels. leather-case my pocket Elzevir Horace Dickens's more refined humor has spoil- —Comes viæ vitæque dulcis at utilis, ed us for the coarser and more homely worn out with and by me.” He used work of the Scotch surgeon, yet is the to say that he preferred St. Luke to all day far distant when Strap, and Pipes, the Evangelists, because of the purity of and Commodore Trunnion, and Bow- his Greek, and he made no doubt that ling, and Lismahago, and Mathew Bram- Dr. Friend was quite right when he asble shall cease to charm. What won- serted that this purity arose from the drous vitality this man must have had, Apostle's professional familiarity with what hardships he struggled through, the writings of the Greek physician. proudly and silently. No wonder he Towards the end of the eighteenth cenwagged a bitter tongue, and wielded an tury another physician was beginning his irritable and caustic pen. He knew men literary career at Lichfield—Dr. Erasfar too well to respect them, though one mus Darwin, once one of the most popcould have wished that there had been a ular poets in England. In some relittle more of the generous tolerance, spects a foolish and eccentric man, he the higher tone, the nobler spirit of yet managed to accomplish a good deal Henry Fielding, in his rough transcripts of solid work in the seventy years durfrom life. There goes a story that he ing which he wrote and practised. His once went to visit his mother in disguisé · Botanic Garden' and 'Loves of the after a period of long absence, and that Plants,' his miscellaneous pieces, and
his 'Temple of Nature,' are poems full He lies quiet enough now in St. Paul's, of splendid and sonorous declamation, Covent Garden, but for many years he and are perhaps the most successful at- poured out series after series of libels tempts to embody the truths of science in and satires which have no parallel for verse which have ever been made in Eng- venomous scurrility, coarse and boisterlish. His high-flown and extravagant ous humor, audacious invective, and style was inimitably parodied by Can- manifold ability. They used to make ning and Frere in the Loves of the poor George III, and all good Tories Triangles,' but it ought not to be for- shake in their shoes. In striking congotten that from this poet-doctor Camp- trast to this witty reprobate stand those bell learned the principles of his versifi- respectable physicians – Mason Good, cation. His great, his damning defect Beddoes, Currie, and Madden-whó is his want of variety and repose : like contributed much interesting matter to Claudian, he cloys by his monotonous miscellaneous literature. The first sweetness ; like Gibbon and Macaulay,
translated Lucretius into blank verse; he wearies by his unrelieved brilliance. the second was the author of the once Nor must we forget Dr. John Moore- famous essay on Health ; the third was the father of the hero of Corunna. His the first to introduce Robert Burns to voluminous works are now almost for- the notice of the English public ; and gotten-yet two of them at least scarcely the fourth wrote an interesting work on deserve such a fate. In his “Zeluco the 'Infirmities of Men of Genius.' he illustrates with no common power the Bonnel Thornton, the translator of Plaueternal truth that vice is but gilded woe, tus, and the author of some of the best and that in spite of all appearances tó papers in the Connoisseur, deserves the contrary the prosperity of the scoun- notice, and so also does the learned and drel is hollow and unreal; in another indefatigable Dr. Aikin. John Locke, novel, ' Edward,' he reverses the picture: Crabbe, and Keats prepared themselves they are both drawn from the life, and for surgeons, and so consequently form are the fruits, it is easy to see, of minute links in the golden chain, and Lever and personal observation operating on excep- Samuel Warren also walked the hospitionally wide experience. In John Ley. tals. Nor must we forget that Sainteden, another surgeon, Sir William Jones Beuve, the prince of French critics, is might have found a rival in Oriental also to be numbered among the votaries lore, and English literature lost a grace- of Medicine. ful and accomplished poet. We have But there is another point at which often thought that Sir Walter Scott's the two professions touch, and this forms memoir of this young scholar—who died one of the niost pleasing passages in the before his time at Batavia, in Java, Au- annals of literature ; we mean the relagust 28, 1811, is the most delightful of tionship between men of genius so often his miscellaneous works. Everybody stricken with bodily ailments, and those knows the lines in “ The Lord of the whose care and duty it is “to stand beIsles':
tween man and his doom.”
Who can "Quench'd is his lamp of varied lore,
forget Dryden's grateful acknowledgThat loved the light of song to pour : ment of the services of Hobbes and A distant and a deadly shore
Guibbons? or Cheselden's goodness to Has Leyden's cold remains.”
Pope ? or Meade's to Gay? or ArbuthDr. Walcot, better known as Peter not's to every literary man with whom Pindar, very soon exchanged medicine he came into contact. “ There is no for preaching, though he appears to end of my kind treatment from the fachave been equally unsuccessful in both. ulty," writes Pope, a few weeks before The doctor had a living presented he died; "they are in general the most to him in Jamaica, by his patron Sir amiable companions, and the best William Trelawny, but he soon emp- friends as well as most learned men I tied the church. He used to give his know." congregation ten minutes, and when Brocklesby's tender and devoted attenafter that time no one appeared, he and tion to Johnson and Burke was as honhis clerk would betake themselves to the orable to the faculty as to literature. He sea-shore to shoot ring-tailed pigeons. even offered, in his noble admiration of Johnson, to take his irritable patient into “ We forgive you that our mirth is often inhis own house ; and listen, reader, to sipid to you, while you sit absent to what passes Johnson's dignified compliment to medi- amongst us from your care of such as languish
in sickness. We are sensible that their discine—was it not ample fee ?
tresses, instead of being removed by company, “Whether what Temple says be true, that
return more strongly to your imagination by physicians have had more learning than the comparison of their condition to the jollities of
health.' other faculties, I will not stay to inquire, but I believe every man has found in physicians great liberality and dignity of sentiment, very prompt The best friend poor Chatterton ever effusion of beneficence, and willingness to exert had was the kind Bristol surgeon. Dr. a lucrative art where there is no hope of lucre."
Cotton's 'Visions ’ have dropt into obSteele had many acquaintances, but he livion, but Cowper's acknowledgment of never had a truer friend than Samuel his skill and care will give the physician Garth, M.D. It was to his doctor friend of St. Albans his passport to immortalithat he dedicated “ The Lover.' What ty; and as long as Pendennis' shall a beautiful and touching testimony is be read, so long will the name of Dr. this to the humanity of the accomplished John Elliotson be deathless. — Temple physician :
FLOWERS AND THEIR UNBIDDEN GUESTS.
Those who are familiar with Mr. nectar which is secreted within the blos. Darwin's charming work on the Fer soms, and so become the means of transtilisation of Orchids, and who have porting the pollen from flower to flower ; watched the progress of physiological and the contrivances by which they are botany since its publication in 1862, can- induced to visit the nectaries, and thus not fail to be struck with the abundance secure the processes of fertilisation, are of evidence which has been adduced in alike manifold and wonderful. support of his broad generalisation, Nature, however, must furnish means that Nature abhors perpetual self-fer- of protection as well as of attraction. tilisation.' In the vegetable world, ob- There are multitudes of insects which servation has been constantly accumula- would prove highly injurious to flowers, ting proof of the necessity of intercross- by robbing them of their nectar without ing with independent sources of life for conferring any corresponding benefit in the preservation and multiplication of the work of fertilisation. The blossoms, species.
therefore, must be protected from such Self-fertilisation, it may be here men- visitants; and that many curious contioned, lies in the production of fruitful trivances exist for the exclusion of these germs by a single flower. Cross-fertilisa- unwelcome guests recent observations tion implies the production of similar have shown. As Darwin opened up a germs from different flowers of the same new and unexplored region by his obserspecies ; and this necessitates the trans- vations on the attractive properties of ference of the pollen from the anthers of flowers, so Dr. Kerner of Innsbrück, in one flower to the stigma of another. recent work on Flowers and their The chief agents in this work of cross- Unbidden Guests has introduced us to fertilisation, which is essential to the a new field for interesting research, by health and vigor of plants, are insects. pointing out some of the curious con Variety of form, and brilliancy of color, trivances of Nature for guarding her and richness of odor in flowers are treasures against the inroads of such innot provided only for the gratification sects as would effect only useless plunof man. They have higher ends to serve der. The questions which are opened up in the economy of nature ; and, except by the study of such contrivances have in the realms of poetical imagination, no wider bearings than any which have yet flower is ever born to blush unseen,' been followed out ; such as the influence or 'waste its sweetness on the desert of structural development upon the vaair.' Attracted by their bright colors riation of species, and consequently upon and sweet scents, insects feed upon the natural selection. Of this we may rest
assured, that no morphological charac- to the stigma. This angular movement ters are without some functional signifi- must be of definite strength to accomcance in the path of natural progress. plish its purpose, and this would be renBut more extended observations on the dered impossible, if the corolla were in biology of plants must be made before any way injured or disturbed during the any very certain conclusions on such flowering period. Hence the necessity subjects can be reached. The chief re- of protection from the injurious influsult of Dr. Kerner's delightful work is ences of weather or the attacks of anito show that as the presence of nectar in mals. In many species of plants the faa flower furnishes conclusive evidence tal effects, which would result from exof cross-fertilisation through the agency tensive destruction of leaves by animals, of animal life, so, almost as certainly, are guarded against by the presence of will there be found some contrivances by alkaloids, and other chemical compounds which the nectar is preserved from at- in the cellular juice, rendering them untacks that would prove injurious to the palatable. Many of the larger grazing continuance of the species.
animals would sooner go without food It may not be out of place here to re- than touch the leaves of these plants. mind our readers that they need not be of the plants which form the staple food deterred from the observation of these of herbivorous animals, there will alcontrivances by the fear of scientific ways be a sufficiency to secure their conlore. The mastery of a few simple terms tinuance after animal wants have been and details of botanical structure, with supplied ; but the question of leaf-presthe aid of the beautiful plates which ac- ervation is of importance in its bearing company Dr. Kerner's work, will enable upon flowers, inasmuch as these are dethe most unlearned to prosecute such in- veloped from the materials which the vestigations with ease, while the pleasure leaves supply. of their summer rambles will be enhanced It is in flowers, however, that the most a thousandfold.
varied contrivances, for the preservation Some idea of the value of protective of their organs against the attacks of aniagencies may be formed by considering mals of all kinds, are to be found. In the extreme delicacy of many of the some we find the result obtained by the floral organs which are engaged in the secretion of distasteful substances, such work of fertilisation. Leaves are no less as alkaloids, resins, and ethereal oils. essential than flowers to the continu. It is remarkable that, as a rule, herbivoation of a plant's existence, for in them rous animals have a distaste for flowers. are formed the materials for the flower. Any one may observe how carefully catA leaf, however, may be damaged by tle and sheep avoid plucking most of being partially eaten, or may undergo the flowers which abound in their pasturchange by the production of galls, with- age. The beauty of the blossoms has out any fatal effect to the whole. In no attraction for them. The richness of the case of the organs within the blos- the odors seems only to repel them. It som, their delicacy is such that the is worthy of note, however, that it is smallest change in size or shape, or the only when the flowers are fresh that they slightest disturbance through external in- are thus carefully avoided by ruminant fluences, during the period of fertilisa- animals. When their work is done and tion, may render the whole apparatus they are dried up, the chemical compowerless to effect its parpose. In the pounds which protected them in the field common Louse-wort (Pedicularis), for are either volatilized, or so changed that example, when fertilisation takes place they lose their scent, and, mixed with in the individual flower, the result seems hay, they are readily eaten. While, howto depend upon a single movement of ever, the ethereal oils which abound in the corolla. The upper petals of this flowers render them repulsive to grazing flower form a beak-shaped tube, in which animals, they serve to attract others, the dusty pollen will be found at the especially insects, whose visits are need end of the blossoming period. The fer- ful for the work of cross-fertilisation. tilisation then depends upon an angular Wingless animals are in all circummovement of the corolla, by which the stances unwelcome guests to flowers. pollen is rolled upward through the tube They reach the blossoms only by climb.
NEW SERIES.-Vol. XXX., No. I