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language of hyperbole to say that he in- an apology is needed for his frailties, vented Russia. His merits as a wise rough methods, boorishness of mind, statesman and legislator far surpass his barbarianism, the apology we offer is defects as a tyrant. In such a kingdom that he took the shape the conditions of as his, tyranny was the kindliest rule. Russian society and the environment Individuals might have to suffer, but the around him would permit- that these principles of justice such tyranny as defects belonged rather to his times than Peter's vindicated and defended are to himself ; while whatever of good he benefits and blessings to the end of time. was or great he did, was the result of He was an untutored genius who had to the throes of his own groping and darkcreate an ideal of kingcraft for himself ; ly struggling spirit, earnest intellect, and and if he failed let readers judge. If determined will.-Belgravia Magazine.

the gap.

LITERATURE AND MEDICINE. In the beautiful fiction of the Greeks, science with the graceful accomplishÆsculapius, the tutelary god of medi- ments of the scholar. In an age like the cine, was the son of Apollo, the tutelary present, when there is so much technical god of poetry and culture, and as far knowledge to be mastered, and when it back as the memory of man can travel must be difficult for a hard-worked prachave the two deities walked, with Mercy titioner to keep pace with the ever-inin their train, their gracious way to creasing discoveries which are every day gether. Cruel and capricious is our sov- throwing light on his own pursuits, it ereign mistress Fortune, harsh and very can hardly be expected that he should arbitrary it would seem are the other di- find time to sacrifice in any way to the vinities that shape our ends, but these Muses. Still, considering how closely two beneficent powers have never failed associated the medical profession has to bless and shelter us. Between the been with literature, as well by its origiforces that envy and dissolve-ever mil- nal contributions as by its affectionate itant against our peace and joy—have intercourse with men of genius, one canApollo and his son stood before us in not help feeling a sort of regret at this

One welcomed us into the compulsory estrangement, and indulging world, and the other makes the world a hope that some day or other the two lovely to us, wrapping us in his glory pursuits may resume their old intimacy. and life and light, while he may. But And now, reader, with your leave, we when we wax faint and weary, as we will devote a few pages to the Literature must, then is Apollo's true son at our of Physic, and recall the names of some side soothing, encouraging, sympathis- of those who divided their impartial sacing; and even when the Fates have rifices between Delos and Epidaurus. worked their wills upon the shattered Porson used to say that there was no frame, and we are passing beyond the better reading than the works of the reach of healing hands down the dark Greek physicians ; and if he would have lonely road, he removes what obstacles consented to exclude Galen and Paulus he can, and smoothes, loyal to the last, Ægineta, we should be disposed to corthe stormy passage to the grave. Nor dially agree with him. Hippocrates and have the servants of these kindred dei- Aretæus may be perused and reperused ties been unmindful of the ties which with delight by any one who has any inconnect them, and the relation between terest in morbid pathology and its delinMedicine and Literature forms one of eation. The first, who was a contempothe most interesting episodes in the his- rary of Pericles, and who flourished tory of Letters. They are not perhaps therefore when style and literary skill so intimately related now as they once had reached their climax of perfection, were. We have many men distin- has left a large mass of writings behind guished, both in Medicine and Surgery, him. It is not always easy to discrimibut we shall not be guilty of disrespect nate between his spurious and genuine to the faculty if we say that very few offspring, it is true, and he has doubtless manage to temper the severer pursuits of been made responsible for much that he never wrote. But the 'Aphorisms' are phthisis (Chronic Diseases, Book I.) certainly his, and if they contain much rank among the miracles of verbal delinthat will amuse, they contain much use- eation. They are not merely triumphs ful instruction. There is nothing of technical diagnosis ; they are pictures sounder or weightier in all literature which haunt the imagination like a nightthan the first : Life is short, and the mare ; they can never be forgotten. art is long, the occasion fleeting, experi. With the slow and painful elaboration of ence fallacious, and judgment difficult. Balzac, Aretæus has all his potency in The physician must not only be pre- general effect; he not only brings the pared to do what is right himself, but sufferer before our eyes, but he makes also to make the patient, the attendants us feel and hear and almost share his and externals co-operate. His treatise tortures-his despair-his degradation,

On the Prognostics,' a masterpiece of every detail of them. We close his minute and vigorous descriptive power, book with horror and boundless admicontains a passage which recalls with ration. As it is no part of this paper sad exactness a scene witnessed by too to deal with the history of medicine, we many of us.

When in acute fevers, shall merely say of the illustrious Corpneumonia, phrenitis, or headache, the nelius Celsus, that in purity and elegance hands are waved before the face, hunt- of style he need fear no comparison with ing through empty space, as if gathering any of his contemporaries, though Livy bits of straw, picking the nap from the and Nepos were probably among them. coverlet, or tearing chaff from the wall, To Asclepiades, whose charms as a man all such symptoms are bad and dead- and whose eloquence as a writer have ly.” A keen, curious, and close ob- been celebrated by Cicero, we can only server, a shrewd, sagacious, and practi- allude. Of the writings of Antonius cal man, a thoughtful and philosophic Musa, the physician of Augustus, Mästudent of human nature, a master of cenas, Virgil, and Horace, nothing has terse and lucid speech was this, the come down to us, but as long as Time father of medicine. If he is to be num- shall be will his name belong to literabered among the ornaments of his pro- ture. For he, it was well known, was fession, he merits a place among the or- described by the grateful Virgil, in the naments of prose literature. Aretæus, twelfth book of the Æneid, under the too, is another medical writer whose lit- name of lapis. Aëtius, Oribasius, Alerary excellence takes him out of the exander Trallianus, and others over narrower sphere of a merely technical ex- whom we may not linger will bring us to ponent of his art. This master of graph- times comparatively modern. ic composition flourished in the second First among the moderns will stand century. He wrote, like Hippocrates, the accomplished and versatile Jerome in Ionic Greek. He was evidently a Fracastoro. Born in 1483, he was preman who combined as thorough a knowl- served to the world by a miracle, for edge of his profession as was then pos when he was still an infant his mother sible, with a liberal love for poetry and was struck dead by a flash of lightning, the belles-lettres. A humane and tender- while he, nestling in her bosom, escaped hearted man, he often pauses to lainent unscathed. His Latin poetry was the the helplessness of the surgeon when glory of an age which could boast of the confronted with some forms of suffering, composition of Politian and Bembo, and and to express his sympathy with the to the sedulous and successful cultivation agonies he is unable to relieve. As a of the fine arts he added an intimate acdelineator of disease he has never been quaintance with astronomy and matheequalled, except perhaps by Sydenham, matics, while at the same time he was and his account of tetanus (Acute Dis- the most eminent physician in Italy. eases,

Book I.), of elephantias is For many years statues of him towered (Chronic Diseases, Book II.), and of up in the public squares of Padua and

Verona, that they might serve as a * “ For after I saw him fumble with the continual memento of him, and as an sheets and play with flowers, I knew there was but one way,” says poor Mrs. Quickly of him

incentive to the pursuit of literary emiwhom she would fain have kept even from

nence." Nor must we pass by Jerome Arthur's bosom.”

Cardan, the daring enthusiast " who


cast the horoscope of our Saviour, and ened and active mind seems to have subjected Him to the stars, to whom all traversed the whole range of human stars are subject.” In his restless and learning. He gave us our first correct indefatigable life there was scarcely a version from Aristotle and Galen, he department of human knowledge into busied himself with divinity and philolwhich he did not force himself. He ogy, he translated Proclus the was, he says, born to release the world Sphere, and in pure and perspicuous from the manifold errors under which it Latinity he treated of medicine and groaned, and ten folio volumes testify physical science in works which are still his energy and ambition. The labors of consulted by the curious. His amiable fanatics are heavily discounted by Time, temper, his unostentatious charities, and but mathematics will for ever be Cardan's his generous philanthropy have elicited debtor. Physical science will thank him glowing eulogies from more than one of for removing, if he did not correct, his illustrious contemporaries. His many errors, and the student of human tomb may still be seen in St. Paul's nature must be sincerely grateful for the Cathedral, erected by another scholar most curious and extraordinary auto- for whom Medicine need never blushbiography in existence. In Julius Dr. John Caius. Contemporary with Cæsar Scaliger Medicine may boast one these great men was Sir Thomas Elyot, of its brightest scholastic ornaments, a physician of whom Literature may be though, curiously enough, he began the justly proud. His Castle of Health study of neither medicine nor Greek till was the first popular book on Medicine he was forty. Crudity and vigor char- in our language, his Bibliotheca Eliota acterise both the man and his writings, our first good dictionary, and his 'Govas his son's account of him and his own ernour,' a sort of moral and ethical trea* Poetics' amply prove ; but the whole tise, may still be read with interest. history of letters have no such porten- The faculty were, it seems, very angry tous phenomenon to show as the cata- with Elyot for divulging their secrets and logue of the works produced by this man for vulgarising medicine by writing about between the age of forty-when, racked it in English. To which he manfully with gout, he began the Greek alphabet replied that “it was no more shame for -and seventy-four, when he succumbed a person of quality to be the author of a to his cruel foe. Five years before him book on the science of physic than it died another physician, the immortal was for King Henry VIII. to publish a François Rabelais. Rabelais' transla- book on the science of grammar, which tions from Hippocrates and Galen have he had lately done." He was an intilong sunk below soundings. He wrote mate friend of Sir Thomas More, and them to get a practice which never came. was one of the most accomplished scholOne is not altogether surprised at his ars in Europe. We should like to say a contemporaries hesitating about entrust- word about Dr. Thomas Phair, the ing their lives to the actual or potential translator of Virgil, and one of the auauthor of The Lives, Heroic Deeds, thors of 'The Mirrour for Magistrates,' and Sayings of Gargantua and Panta- about William Bulleyn and his Bulwark gruel.' He was never a good hand at of Defence, &c.,' about Dr. William patching up a farce, and was, with all Cunningham and his 'Whetstone of Wit' his boisterous merriment, glad enough and · Castle of Knowledge,' and about when his own was played out. Light lie Reginald Scot and his curious ' Discovthe earth on François Rabelais, for light erie of Witchcraft,' but space forbids. and merry has he made her children? As we propose to take the poets together,

Crossing over to England, we are con- we shall, for the present, pass on to the fronted with another son of Æsculapius, great name of Thomas Sydenham. It whose name can never be mentioned is, perhaps, a little singular that, with without pride by his countrymen-Dr. the exception of Sydenham, no English Thomas Linacre, the pupil of Politian physician has published a work on his and Chalcondylas, the friend of Eras- own art which is entitled to a place mus, More, and Colet, the first teacher among classical compositions, and which of Greek at Oxford, the initiator of the may be read with interest by the nonRenaissance in England. His enlight- professional student. Sydenham's treatises, however, like those of Hippocrates garrulous simplicity of a child, but he and Aretæus, may be perused with conquered, he says, on his knees. He delight by every intelligent scholar. might “count the world not an inn, but Their facile, copious, and masculine an hospital, not a place to live but to Latinity, their graphic pictures of dis- die in, but he learnt to "return to his ease, the striking reflections which re- Creator the duty of a devout and learned lieve the course of the technical narra- admiration.” In the active practice of tive, their autobiographical interest, must his profession he saw, as a philosopher, come home to every one. In him were much of human weakness, as a physician revived the literary graces which make much of human suffering ; but the duties the works of the great Cappadocian and of the physician he tempered with the Celsus so fascinating and delightful to liberal sympathies of a Christian philosothe general reader. With him, however, pher. With his hand on the patient's perished the art : no other medical pulse—they are his own words-he could works have been prevented by their style not help thinking of his soul, and “ forfrom being altogether forgotten by liter- got his province. At the age of sevenature in being superseded in science. ty-seven, leaving posterity the precious

But if ever Apollo and the Muses legacy of his writings, he ceased to be cared for mortal bantling, mild was their mortal,“ ready to be anything in the glance on the cradle of another future ecstasy of being ever and as content with physician, who first saw the light in six feet as with the moles of Adrianus." Cheapside, about the middle of October We have other names to mention, but 1605, for then came there, into a world Browne was the prince of literary phywhich was to be so beautiful to him, Sir sicians. In striking contrast to him Thomas Browne. How shall we deal stands Bernard Mandeville, who scanwith him-how describe him-him, the dalised the hypocrites of the eighteenth author of the 'Religio Medici,' the century by his paradoxical work entitled ' Hydriotaphia,' the Vulgar Errors,' 'The Fable of the Bees.' He is not read the Quincunx,' the charming “ Let- now so much as he used to be, but in ters ''? Quaintest and best of moralists, nervous vigor, irony, logic, and satire he truest, deepest, sincerest of philoso- is not unworthy of comparison with his phers, a Plato without his sophistry, a brother cynic, Swift. His opinion of his Seneca without his tinsel. Shall we call fellow-creatures is not encouraging ; perhim, in Southey's measured phrase, haps his professional experiences fur"the greatest prose poet in this or in nished him with the hint for his great any other language," or echo Lamb's doctrine, that private vices are public loving eulogies, or Coleridge's rapturous benefits. praise, or Lytton's eloquent panegyric ? The treatises of Dr. Charleton--we Shall we enlarge on his boundless learn- beg his pardon for not mentioning him ing, as curious and recondite as Bur- before --- are now chiefly remembered ton's, on his originality in treating even from Dryden's allusion to one of them, commonplace as rich and racy as Mon- though his ‘Brief Discourses concerntaigne's, on his aphorisms as piercing ing the different arts of Men' has pointand pithy as Tacitus and Bacon's, on ed many a paragraph in modern social his majestic eloquence, soaring as high essays, for which the judicious plagiarist as Plato's or Jeremy Taylor's when has had the credit. Never did a more their wing is strongest ? This, all this, accomplished or more lovable man pen will his lovers claim for him, but deeper a prescription than the once famous Dr. still lies the subtle charm of his genius. Samuel Garth, the friend of Dryden, The man, says Goethe, is always greater Pope, and Steele, the noble philanthrothan his works, and never did literary pist, who, when at the top of his profesexpression less reflect the breathing soulsion, “practised among the poor for than in Browne's style. Not a thought nothing," the scholarly translator of that weighs like lead on the solitary Ovid, the ingenious author of one of the thinker but weighed heavily on him, and best mock heroic poems in Europe, the cruel were the agonies he struggled poet who passed the heroic couplet perthrough ; he has told us all about them fect into the hands of Pope. Alas for in that strange diction of his, with the human fame, who now turns over the


deserted pages of 'The Dispensary'? even by his admirers, but his . Creation' and yet it contains lines which would do was considered by Dennis superior to credit to the highest names in literature. the 'De Rerum Naturâ,' was described

But Garth was not the first poet-phy- by Addison as one of the most useful sician. That honor must be claimed by and noble productions in our English Dr. Andrew Borde, whose dismal lucu- verse, and has elicited a warm eulogy brations lulled the ears of the good peo- from Dr. Johnson. Let those read it ple in Henry VIII.'s reign. His Brev- who can. Most of poor Blackmore's iary of Health ’ is not exhilarating, yet lucubrations, as he loved to call them, he could tell a good tale as well as any were written in his coach while he was one, and he has the doubtful honor of hurrying from patient to patient-or, as being the Christian name of the original Pope maliciously puts it, “written to of the term Merry Andrew, the rumbling of his chariot wheels." another physician, Paracelsus, has fur- What Blackmore was in verse that was nished us with the term bombast. Over Sir John Hill in prose. To us this unDr. Thomas Lodge we must pause for a wearied scribbler—who among other moment. His ' Fig for Momus' is one things had tried his hand at writing of the earliest series of satires in our farces-is best known by Garrick's epilanguage ; some of his lyrics are divine gram, (turn, reader, to his stanzas on ' Beauty: “For physic and farces his equal there scarce and to 'Rosalynde's Madrigal '), and is, his pretty prose-tale ‘Rosalynde ; or, For his farces are physic, his physic a farce Euphue's Golden Legacy,' had the

is.” honor of furnishing Shakespeare with Yet he began well with a translation the plot of 'As You Like It.' One of Theophrastus's Treatise on Gems,' would like to have known something, by and his 'Vegetable System,' in twentythe way, of Shakespeare's son-in-law, six folios, representing no less than twenDr. Hall, for if he wrote the epitaphs ty-six thousand figures or plants drawn attributed to him in Stratford Church he from nature, deserves the gratitude of must have been a man of no ordinary, botanists. His squabbles with the Royal accomplishments. Nor must we pass Society, with Fielding, Smart, and others unnoticed that indefatigable physician, amused the literary world of London for Philemon Holland, who though no poet many years. Poor Christopher Smart himself was the cause of poetry in gave it him well in a satire (the ‘Hilothers. This unwearied scholar was not liad '),* which is still worth reading, only a practising physician, but a school and from which Disraeli gives some master as well, and managed in the in- amusing extracts. Essays, farces, novtervals of his double vocation to present els, epigrams, libels, dissertations, the world with complete versions of learned treatises, scurrilous pamphlets, 'Livy,' Pliny's 'Natural History,' Plu- letters, and even sermons flowed in untarch's ‘Morals,' Suetonius's 'Lives of broken succession from Hill's facile pen, the Cæsars,' Ammianus Marcellinus, and a catalogue of his writings would be Xenophon's Cyropædia,' and Cam- the catalogue of no inconsiderable libraden's Britannia,' with other works be- ry. His proper place, however, was side ! He died, in his prime so to and now is with his brother quack who speak, aged eighty-six, having never had disgraced another profession — Orator occasion to wear spectacles, and medi. Henley. It is a relief to turn to Dr, tating other translations. Truly they Arbuthnot, of whose splendid genius and were giants in those days ; if Hygeia hid sweet temper Swift, niggard in praise her secrets, she revealed her presence. though he was, could say to Pope," He Perhaps the faculty have no great reason has more wit than we all have, and his to be proud of the irrepressible Sir Richard Blackmore, who, undismayed * Describing him in these complimentary by the savage onslaughts first of Dryden lines : and subsequently of Pope, complacently "On mere privation she (Nature) bestow'd a produced poems as fast as the world


And dignified a nothing with a name, forgot them. His ' Prince Arthur,' his A wretch devoid of use, of sense, of grace, ' Alfred,' and his Eliza 'were given up The insolvent tenant of encumber'd space !"

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