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him to break Inclosures, and invades, in any kind or' -degree, the Property of his Neighbours, he then becomes doubly criminal; he adds the Malefactor to the Brute, and intitles himself to all the Guilt and Infamy due to the vilest Criminal: If a Man, not. content to gratify a Passion in itself natural and innocent, in such a Manner, and under such Restrictions,. as Reason, Justice, Order, and Religion, have prescribed, he is so far from having any Pretensions to Honour; that he deserves the Contempt of the Wise, the Aversion of the Virtuous and Good, and the Censure and Correction of the Laws. A modern fine Gentleman, who triumphs over the Ruins of Innocence and Virtue, in the Vanity of making Prostitutes to a brutish Appetite, and the powerful Charms of his own dear irresistible Person, is an Animal destitute of Religion, Reason, Decency, and common Honesty. It is true, Custom and Fashion, and false Notions of Gallantry, have, in great measure, defaced the Boundaries of Vice and Virtue, Infamy and Honour, in the fashionable World, and have not only encouraged these Sons of Infamy and Shame to appear without blushing in the Assemblies of the Great, die Fair, the Polite, and even the Virtuous, but also to be distinguished to Advantage, and be encouraged to persevere in their Iniquities, by the Indulgence they receive from those who are obliged, by all the Rules of Equity and Decency, to detest and abhor them, and which, perhaps, would be the most likely Way to bring them to Shame and Repentance..—I cannot dismiss this Article without applying myself to these pernicious Destroyers, as an Advocate for that lovely Part of our Species, upon whose Innocence, whose H 3 Happiness Happiness, and Love, the most agreeable worldly Injoyments of our Sex, and the Comforts of social Lise, chiefly depend. Let me ask them a serious Question; Would any of them be pleased to have their Daughters, their Sisters, their Wards, or their Friends, seduced, betrayed, and debauched, by the most detestable Treachery, or compelled by Violence to Prostitution, Diseases, Beggary, Infamy, and Damnation? Were this Question to be put to the greatest Reprobate upon Earth in cold Blood, I dare fay he would blush; but a Man of any Virtue, Humanity, andGoodrrature, would be struck with Horror and Remorse, and would give me Hazaess Answer to the Prophet, Is thy Servant a Dog, that heshoulddo this Thing f Yet such a sad Dog is every one that does the fame to another Man's Daughter, Sister, or Friend; for here the Golden Rule of Justice determines the Kind and Degree of Iniquity on both Sides of the Question to be the fame.—When we read of a Cyrus, an Alexan^ der, a Scipio, not only exhibiting illustrious Examples of Humanity, Continence, and Honour, in the Warmth of youthsul Passions, the Possession of Beau^ ty, the Insolence of War, and the Triumphs of Victory, but encouraging others to do the fame; it ought to be an eternal Reproach upon the low Gallantries, the detestable Hypocrisy, the inhuman Treachery, and execrable Perjuries, made use of by a Set of poor Wretches, who call themselves fine Gentlemen and Men of Honour, when they have no other Pretensions to Humanity itself, than the Power of propagating their own Species, and that not with half that Justice and Decency as many of their Fellow-Brutes. Now, whether a Man that can facrifice every Thing that is virtuous, honourable, and lovely in thfc most beautiful Part of the Creation to a brutish Appetite, when he might have heightened and fanctified the fame Injoyment by a rational and religious Use of it, can have any Pretensions to Reason, Justice, Humanity, Decency, or Honour, let the silliest, or the wickedest, Reader judge, and pronounce accordingly.

Nor have the Covetous and Penurious a better Title to Honour, than the Selfijh and Voluptuous. By the Covetous, I mean those who are intent upon getting; by the Penurious, those who are intent upon faving and hoarding up whatever they can get, without any Regard to the Demands of Justice, Humanity, or Charity. The Love of Money (the Scripture tells us) is the Root of all Evil, and Covetousness has in it all the Guilt and Folly of the most stupid Idolatry. He that bows down to a Stock or a Stone, or offers Incense to an Idol, is not a more absurd ridiculous Creature, than he who facrifices his Time, his Health, his Peace, his Soul and Body, to Heaps of Gold and Silver, which, when they exceed the ordinary Provision for the Necessaries and Conveniencies of Lise, and the decent Support of a Family, are so far from adding to the Comforts of Lise, that they are really an Addition to its Burdens; and, instead of securing and increasing the Happiness of their Owners, too often pierce them through with many Sorrows. This is the Voice of uncorrupt Nature and unprejudiced Reason, confirmed by the unanimous Suffrage of wise and good Men in all Ages and Nations of the World. Were I to collect the Testimonies of all the Heathen Moralists upon this Head, it would fill a Volume. In short, there is not extant a single Heathen Writer of MoraliH 4 ty, ty, who does not, in the strongest Terms, condemn an avaricious penurious Temper, as a Contradiction to every thing that is noble, generous, wise, and good, in human Nature. Had Cutler and Hopkins lived among Heathens and Barbarians, they would have been despised and condemned, by Men of Sense and Virtue, as a Disgrace to human Nature, and a Reproach to Reason and common Sense. Contempt of Riches has, in all Ages and Nations, been regarded, by the truly great and noble, as the insallible Mark of agreat and noble Soul, and was the distinguishing Character of all the illustrious Heroes and eminent Philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome. Seneca is mentioned, by some, as an Exception from this general Rule; but, whatever his Practice might be, his Principles and Precepts were different; and what Wonder is it to see a Heathen contradicting his Principles in his Practice, when we daily see Christians do the fame. Riches are then only a Blessing, and their Possession honourable, when they fall into generous Hands, and are employed to generous and honourable Purposes; in doing good, and making others happy, in supporting the Distressed and Miserable, and encouraging and rewarding indigent Merit. But when I see a Man, without one useful or amiable Quality, exalted above measure on account of his great Riches, without considering how they were acquired, and how they are employed, who fancies that any thing external to a Man, any thing that may be common to either goodor bad, and which is too commonly the Lot of the most worthless Part of Mankind, can render a Man truly valuable or honourable, he must be a very filly Creature, without any Pretensions toGreatnefs or Sound'

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ness of Mind, to true Honour, or good Understandmg. A rich Knave or Fool difsers in nothing from a poor one, but in the Aggravation of his Guilt, or the Ostentation of his Folly. Would you see a compendious and beautisul View of all that Wit and Reason can dictate upon this Subject ?—You will find it in Mr. Pope's excellent Essay upon the true Use of Riches.

LETTER V.

NOR have the Proud and the Ambitious a better Title to Honour and true Greatness of Mind, than the Selfijh, the Penurious, and Voluptuous; though, as Sallust long ago observed, * Ambition has a nearer Resemblance os Virtue than Covetousness, as it has the Appearance of a just and laudable Appetite for Power and Fame, which even wise and good Men are fond of; but Covetousness is a stupid Love of Money, which no Man of Sense or Virtue could ever be guilty of coveting. But whatever Similitude there may seem to be . betwixt Pride and Honour, Ambition and true Greatness of Mind, they are as far asunder. as the Swelling of a Dropsy, from a full and robust Habit of Body. That the Root of Pride is Folly, that Ignorance is the Mother of Vanity, I shall endeavour to prove, and whether Ignorance and Folly be consistent

* Quod tamen vitium propius virtutem erat, nam gloriam, honorem, imperium, bonus & ignavus æque fibi exoptant: Avaritia pecuniæ studium habet, quam nemo sapiens concupivit. Sail.

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