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Mem. x11. If the dissensions of lawyers or statesmen make factions in the commonwealth, let not the fault be laid on religion, though some divines fall into either faction. When the difference is not in divinity, but in law cases, blame not religion for that, which it hath no hand in. And watch against satan, who alway laboureth to make civil factions or differences tend to the dishonour of religion and the detriment of the church and Gospel.

Mem. xIII. Take those that are covetous, ambitious, or selfish, and seek for preferment, to be the unfittest to be consulted with in the matters of religion, and the unfittest to be trusted with the charge of souls. And let humble, mortified, self-denying men, be taken as fitter pastors for the churches.

Mem. xiv. Side not with any faction of contentious pastors, to the oppression of the rest, when the difference is in tolerable things; but rather drive them on to unity, upon condescending and forbearing terms: for there will else be no end; but the faction which you side with, will break into more factions, and the church will receive damage by the loss of the oppressed party, and by the division much more. What lamentable work the contentions of the bishops have made in the churches, in all ages, since the primitive times, all history doth too openly declare. And how much a holy, prudent, peaceable magistrate can do, to keep peace among them, more than will be done if their own impetuosity be left unrestrained, it is easy to observe; especially if he keep the sword in his own hand, and trust it not in the hands of churchmen, especially of one faction to the oppression of the rest".

causa est cur homines viles et abjecti animi officiis praeponantur, qui a superioribus duci se sinant ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. Mariana de Reform. Jesuit. c. 13. 15, 16. 18. In Arcan. Jesuit. pp. 131, 132. Recit. in Apolog. Giraldi. Nulla est latronum societas in qua justitia non plus loci habeat, quam in societate nostra, &c.— ubinon modo scientia et ignorantia in aequo sunt, sed etiam scientia impedimento est, quo minus quis consequatur premia humano ac divino jure debita. Marian. Aphor, 84. c. 12, &c. 14.89. Aphor. 87, &c. The rest is worth the reading, as a warning from a Jesuit to the governors of state and church. Aphor. 80. c. 11. Superiores societatis nostrae sunt homines indigni, qui officiis praesint, cum generalis metuat ac sublatos velit, quorum eminentes sunt virtutes. Boni quam malicisuspectiones sunt. This, and abundance more, saith Mariana, a Jesuit of ninety-six years of age, learned in Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Greek, and Latin, of his own society. * Lamprid. numbers it with Alexander Mam. Severus's good works. “Judaeis privilegia reservavit: Christianos esse passus est. Nam illo tempore crudelius Arianorum Episcopi, Presbyteri, Clerici, quam Rex et Vandalisaeviebant. Id. p. 468. ! Prov. xxix. 12. * Justitiae munus primum est, ut ne cui quis noceat nisi lacessitus injuria. Cic. Off. i. 20. Prov. xvii. 7. xxviii. 16. Psal. cxix. 23, Prov. xxv.2. Leg. Epist. M. Ciceronis ad fratrem. * 1 Tim. ii. 2. o Rom. xiii. 3, 4. P Rom. xiv. 23. a Quis mihi imponat necessitatem vel credendi quod nolim, vel quod velim non

Mem. xv. Believe not the accusations that are brought against the faithful ministers of Christ, till they are proved, and judge not them, or any of his servants, upon the reports of adversaries, till they have spoken for themselves; for the common corruption of depraved nature, doth engage all the ungodly in such an enmity against holiness, that there is little truth or righteousness to be expected from wicked and malicious lips, for any holy cause or person. And if such persons find but entertainment and encouragement, their malice will abound, and their calumnies will be impudent; which is the sense of, “If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked'.” The example of Saul and Doeg is but such, as would be ordinary, if rulers would but hearken to such calumniators".

Mem. xvi. When the case is doubtful about using punishments and severities against the scrupulous in the mat ters of religion, remember your general Directions, and see what influence they must have into such particulars; as, That the very work and end of your office is, that under your government the people may live quietly and peaceably in godliness and honesty". And that rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil; and for the praise of them that do good; and ministers of God to us for good; and revengers to execute wrath upon them that do evil". And remember the danger of persecution, as described Matt. xviii. 6. 10. 14. 1 Thess. ii. 15, 16. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14–17. And that he that doubteth of things indifferent, is damned if he do them, because he doth them not of faith P. And remember whom, and what it is that God himself forgiveth and forbeareth. And always difference the infirmities of serious conscionable Christians, from the wickedness of unconscionable and ungodly men. Yet not extenuating the wickedness of any, because of his hypocritical profession of religion ".

Mem. xv.11. Remember that you must be examples of holiness to the people; and shun all those sins which you would have them shun, and be eminent in all those virtues which you would commend unto them'. This is not only necessary to the happiness of those under you, but also for the saving of yourselves. As Paul saith to Timothy, “Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine", continue in them; for in doing this, thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee".” So may I say to rulers, “Take heed to yourselves, and unto government, and continue herein; for in doing this, you will save yourselves, and those you govern. They that are good are likest to do good; but the wicked will do wickedly".”

The chief means for rulers to become thus holy and exemplary is, 1. To hearken to the doctrine and counsel of the word of the Lord, and to meditate in it day and night”. And to have faithful, holy, and self-denying teachers y. To beware of the company and counsels of the wicked. “Take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness *.” 3. To watch most carefully against the special temptations of their great places, especially against sensuality and pride, and preferring their own honour, and interest, and will, before the honour, and interest, and will of Jesus Christ. “Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eatin the morning; blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles, and thy princes eat in due season, for strength, and not for drunkenness".” “It is an abomination to kings to commit wickedness; for the throne is established by righteousness".” 4. To remember always the end of holiness. How sure a way it is to glory hereafter, and to leave a sweet and

credendi. Lactant, lib. v. c. 13. The words of Lactantius are, Quis imponat mihi
necessitatem vel colendi, quod nolim; vel quod velim, non colendi. Bunemann,
p. 640. (T. C.)
' Diog. Laert. in Solon, reciteth one of his sayings, Populi rector prius se quam
populum recte instituere debet : si principes et majores secundum leges vixerint,
unaquaeque civitas optime rege peterit. p. 31."
* This saying of Solon is not inserted inthe Amsterdam edition of Laertius. (T.C.)
• Or spend thy time in them. Dr. Hammond.

t 1 Tinn. iv. 16. * Dan. xii. 10.
* Josh. i. 3, 4. Deut. xvii. 18–20. * 2 Chron. xx. 20.
* Prov. xxv. 4, 5. * Eccles. X. 16, 17.

* Prov. xvi. 12.

glorious name and memorial upon earth; when wickedness is the certain way to shame on earth, and misery for ever".

Mem. xvi.11. Rulers should not be contented to do good at home, and to be the joy and blessing of their own subjects; but also set their hearts to the promoting of faith, and holiness, and concord, throughout the churches of the world; and to improve their interests in princes and states, by amicable correspondencies and treaties to these ends; that they may be blessings, to the utmost extent of their capacities. As Constantine interceded with the Persian king, to forbear the persecuting of Christians in his dominion", &c. But I shall presume to speak no farther to my superiors; in the golden age these Memorandums will be practised.

I will only annex Erasmus's image of a good prince, and of a bad, recited by Alstedius Encyclop. lib. xxiii. Polit. c. 3. pp. 173, 174.

The Image of a Good Prince, out of Erasmus.

“If you will draw the picture of a good prince, delineate some celestial wight, more like to God than to a man; absolute in all perfections of virtue; given for the good of all; yea, sent from heaven for the relief of mortal men's affairs; which being (‘oculatissimum’) most discerning, looketh to all ! To whom nothing is more regarded, nothing more

c Luke xviii. 22. 24. Deut. xvii. 20. Prov. xxix. 14. xxii. 29. xvi. 13. xxxi. 3, 4. 2 Chron. xxxii. 25. xxvi. 16. Ezek. xxviii. 2, 5, 17. Luke xii. 19, 20. xvi. 19, 20. 25. It is a sad observation of Acosta, lib. v. c. 9. p. 474. Ac reipsa ceutoque usu observatum est, cas Indorum nationes plures acgraviores superstitionis diabolicae species tenuisse, in quibus regum ac reipublicae maxime potentia et peritia excelluit. Contra quitenuiorem fortunam minusque reipublicae accommodatam sortiti sunt, in his multo idololatria parciorest: usque adeo ut nonnullas Indorum gentes omni idolorum religione vacare, quidam pro certo confirment. Ex bonæ fidei scriptoribus super alias innumeras, haec praecipua capitur utilitas; quod non alia res aeque vel bonorum regum animos ad rescum laude gerendas accedit, vel tyrannorum cupiditates cohibet, ac refraenat, dum utrique cernunt horum literis suam vitam omnem, mox in totius orbis, imo saeculorum omnium theatrum producendam. Et quicquid in abdito nunc vel patrant, vel adscito fuco praetexunt, vel metu dissimulari'cogunt, verius quan ignorari, paulo post clarissimam in lucem sub oculis omnium traducendum : quum jam metu pariterac spe libera posteritas, nec ullo corrupta studio, magno consensu recte factis applaudet, parique libertate his diversa explodet, exibilabitçue. Erasm. Praefat. in Sueton.

a Euseb. in vita Const.

sweet than the commonwealth; who hath more than a fatherly affection unto all. To whom every one's life is dearer than his own ; who might and day is doing and endeavouring nothing else, but that it may be very well with all ; who hath rewards in readiness for all that are good; and pardon for the bad, if so be they will betake them to a better course; that so freely desireth to deserve well of his subjects, that if it be needful, he will not stick to preserve their safety by his own peril; that taketh his country's commodity to be his own gain; that always watcheth, that others may sleep quietly ; that leaveth himself no quiet vacancy, that his country may live in quiet vacancy, or peace; that afflicteth himself with successive cares, that his subjects may enjoy tranquillity. To conclude, on whose virtue it is, that the public happiness doth depend.”

The Image of a Bad Prince. Ibid.

“If you would set forth a bad prince to the eye, you must paint some savage, horrid beast, made up of such monstrosities as a dragon, a wolf, a lion, a viper, a bear, &c., every way armed, with six hundred eyes; every way toothed; every way terrible ; with hooked talons; of an insatiable paunch; fed with men's bowels; drunk with man's blood; that watcheth to prey upon the lives and fortunes of all the people: troublesome to all, but specially to the good; a fatal evil to the world; which all curse and hate, who wish well to the commonwealth; which can neither be endured, because of his cruelty, nor yet taken away without the great calamity of the world, because wickedness is armed with guards and riches.”

CHAPTER III.

Directions for Subjects concerning their Duty to their Rulers.

BEING now to speak of the duties which I must practise, and to those of my own rank, I shall do it with some more freedom, confidence and expectation of regard and practice.

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