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THE PRINCE OF WALES IN INDIA
was every way fitting that “The Most High, | of the Isles," knight of all sorts of orders, field-mar
Most Puissant, and Most Illustrious Prince, Al- shal in the army, and colonel of three regiments, and bei Edward, Prince of Wales,” should visit India running down to “Barrister-at-Law, D. C. L., LL.D., anę.
see something of the two hundred and odd mill- etc.,” the prince can hardly be looked upon as an io is of people who have since 1858 come to look | heroic personage. He is a middle-sized, rather pudgy TT
upon him as their future “ Shahzadah," or whatever gentleman of six-and-thirty, quite nice-looking, with other Oriental designation should be held to be the a noticeable thinness of hair at the top of his head. equivalent of “Emperor of India.” Despite his of his early manhood perhaps the less said the betlong string of titles, beginning with “Duke of Sax- ter; but for the last few years he appea
to have ony, Duke of Cornwall and Rothsay, Earl of Ches- settled down to quite a decorous way of life, to have ter, Carrick, and Dublin, Baron of Renfrew, Lord developed a decided gift of presiding at public meet
1 The Prince of Wales's Tour: A Diary in India, etc. By ings and receptions, and getting rid of a considerWilliam Howard Russell. London, 1877.
able more than his income. For the rest, he is much JULY, 1877.
VOL. III, -I
devoted to snipe-shooting and fancy farming. In all Last, and for our purpose most important of all England there are no finer prize-pigs than those bred Mr. William Howard Russell, whose preëm;
Minent and fed at Sandringham.
ability in describing pageants and the like secured The prince said that it had been the dream of for him the appointment of honorary private secrehis life to visit India ;” but Mr. Russell assures us tary to his royal Highness, with the duty of dull that he “had been in constant participation in func- corąing the events of the visit ; and Mr. Sy tions of state importance or of a national character Hall, “ whose sympathetic and skillful pencil had at home;" that “never, with the exception of the 1.gained him high reputation, received a commission prince-regent, had an heir-apparent been so much foto sketch the incidents of the tour.” Mr. Rus
sell before the public eye, and never had any prince of | tells us that his book is via journal or diary k the blood in direct succession to the throne been in- from day to day, in which the Prince of Wales is
the trusted in the lifetime of the reigning sovereign with central figure round which all the things, perses. so large a part of the functions of sovereignty;" and and events mentioned in it revolve ;” and he a that he was, “ owing to circumstances of which no his best to preserve the grave dignity befitting whis. one questioned the force, in such a position that it official functions. Mr. Hall also makes the prince seemed scarcely possible that his absence from the prominent in almost every one of his seventy ske country for half a year or more would not be attended He presents him in all sorts of dress and
PICwith serious inconveniences.” But when, early in coutrements. We have his plump figure in the full 1875, the project of a visit to India was formally an uniform of a British field-marshal; in mufti, or civilnounced, nobody seems to have thought that the ian garb ; in Derby hát, cigar in mouth, mounted on country would suffer from the want of his presence. goat-like donkey in the streets of Cairo; in shooting The only question seems to have been as to who dress, trudging through swamps, or mounted on ai should pay the cost. The government at first de- elephant beating the jungles in search of tigers ; with cided that the expenses should be charged to the reve bare arms and unbraced trousers playing at lawn. nues of India; but it was afterward resolved that tennis on the deck of the Serapis, with the thermomIndia should pay only for what was actually expended eter verging upon 90°; and, finally, like a good pathere by the Indian authorities. This, as estimated, terfamilias, greeting the pretty princess and their would amount to some thirty thousand pounds. The five nice children, who look half scared at a snarling Admiralty put down the expenses of the voyage out young tiger-cat and other lovely pets which he has and back at fifty-two thousand pounds, including the brought home from India. necessary movements of the fleet. For the personal The general outline of the long voyage is briefly expenses, including the cost of presents to native this: The royal party left London October 11, 1875, chiefs, government asked and obtained a grant of hurried overland through France and Italy, reaching sixty thousand pounds—this, we understand, not to Brindisi, at the heel of the Italian boot, in four or include the thirty thousand to be charged to India. five days. Here they embarked on the royal steamer So that, all told, something less than three-quarters Serapis, screwed down the Mediterranean to the Suez of a million dollars was appropriated for the visit. Canal, stopping by the way at Athens to make a People wise in such matters were confident that the rather hasty call upon the King of Greece, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer would in the end have delighted with the presents brought to him, conto ask for four or five times as much. But, as it sisting of a steam-launch, an Alderney bull and cow, happened, when the bills were all paid, there was a ram and a sheep, and a few fine specimens of the some money left, which the prince was allowed to British pig, which came from Sandringham.” From keep for himself.
Suez the Serapis and her smaller consort the Osborne The suite of the prince numbered about a score steamed down the Red Sea, past Aden, and shot of persons, only a few of whom require special men across the Indian Ocean to the island-city of Bomtion here. First in rank was the Duke of Suther- bay, which was reached November 8th. Here they land, a nobleman verging upon fifty; then Lord Suf were welcomed by Lord Northbrooke, the viceroy; and field, two years his junior, the official head of the the imposing ceremonies of the visit to India began. prince's household; the Earl of Aylesford and two Almost the first thing was the formal reception or three lords, some of whom had been in India be- of the native princes whose quasi-independent dofore; Lieutenant Augustus Fitz-George, whose name minions lie within the bounds of the Presidency of suggests participation of an irregular kind in the Bombay. All things had been prearranged accordblood-royal; and notably the venerable philanthro- ing to the nicest rules of Oriental etiquette. Each pist, Sir Bartle Frere, who had first gone out to India prince was to be saluted by a certain number of guns forty years before, had risen to be Governor of Bom- according to his supposed rank, twenty-one being bay from 1862 to 1867, was perhaps better known the highest, and so on down to the "seven-gun men.” there than any other living Englishman, and who The prince was to receive each at a certain point on was now charged in part“ with the most delicate the carpet of state, and at the close of the interview and difficult functions in administering the affairs of to conduct him back to a prescribed point, and no finance and presents.” Dr. Fayrer had “the onerous farther. We quote, with much abridgment, the narand responsible duty of watching over the health of rative of the most notable of these receptions. First the prince ;" the Rev. Canon Duckworth, who came came his highness Sewajee Chutraputtee Maharaj, out strong as a muscular Christian,” was chaplain. | Raja of Kolhapoor :
A little before 10 A, M. the guns began fo fire a sa sented to the prince á handkerchief containing gold lute, and, before we could count the nineteen coups to mohurs. The prince touched this with his right hand which his highness is entitled, the raja drove up, with a and remitted, and the sirdar walked backward to his seat. great flourish, in a grand carriage, drawn by four horses, Then the prince, taking a gold and jeweled scent-bottle, with servants in liveries of blue and silver, and a mag- shook a few drops of perfume (uttur) on the raja's pocknificent fan-bearer behind wielding a blazing machine, toet-handkerchief, and from another rich casket took betelkeep the sun away.
He was received as per programme, nut (pân) wrapped in fresh, green leaf covered with goldled up the steps into the hall, up the grand staircase, then foil, which he placed in the raja's hand, Major Henderinto the corridors, and so conducted to the entrance of son, as per programme, doing the same for the sirdars. the throne-room. The prince, who had risen, advanced The interview was at an end, and the prince led his highdown the carpet to meet him. At the edge he stretched ness to the sacred verge of the carpet, and thence he was forth his hand, and took that of the raja, whom he drew conducted to the entrance, where he vanished, with his toward him kindly. After him trooped the sirdars, each face still turned to the throne.” holding his sword by the sheath, which has neither straps, buckle, nor slings. A few phrases of courtesy were ex How much of the revenue of this little raja is changed between the shahzadah and the raja, who is an appropriated by the British is not told by Mr. Rus
sell. Next after him came Chamrajenda Wadia, Maharaja of Mysore, a prince of higher rank, and entitled to a salute of twentyone guns. He was an intelligent youth of thirteen, who was adopted by the last maharaja at the age of seven, and six months afterward was conditionally recognized by the British ; he was “installed on the throne, and was placed in the charge of most careful and laborious officers, while the affairs of his illgoverned state were retained in the hands of the British Government, to be handed over to him when he is eighteen years old, “if he shall then be found qualified for the discharge of the duties of his exalted position, subject to such conditions as may be determined at the time.'”. This lad, whose state contains a population of more than five millions, with a revenue of ten million eight hundred and twenty thousand rupees, of which more than a quarter is appropriated as tribute by the British Government, was gorgeous to behold. “The jewels which literally hung upon him must be of enormous value. One stone of the many of his necklace is said to be worth nine lacs of rupees. His neck, wrists, arms, and ankles, were encircled with strings of pearls, diamonds, and rubies. His turban was graced with an aigret of brilliants of large size, and a large tuft of strings of big
pearls and emeralds hung down on his shouldTHE PRINCE AT CAIRO.
er from the top.”
Next came the nineteen-gun Máhárána of adopted son of the last prince, who died six years ago. Oodeypoor, “a young man not of age, of the highest He is a boy of twelve, and was attired in purple velvet race in India. He boasts of the oldest pedigree in and white muslin, and was incrusted with gems. His the world, looks ‘a gentleman all over,' speaks Engturban was a wealth of pearls and rubies; his neck like lish, is tall, good-looking, and very fair—of a fairer an array of show-cases of a great jeweler. He looks as
hue than the average Europeans of the South. . . though he would be the better for a course of cricketing. The state which is ruled in his name contains upward of
But," asks Mr. Russell, what can he do at the best? three thousand square miles, and more than eight hun- What career is open to him? He rules, but does dred thousand people, and has a revenue of 3,047,243 not govern ; and, unless some change be introduced rupees. 1 The face of the raja wore an expression of into the system, the instruction given to the native pleased surprise as his royal highness, coming to the reg- princes in English and other learning will prove not ulation spot on the carpet, took his little hand and led only mischievous but disastrous.” He was clad all him opposite to the silver chair, where he left him with in white, but on his head-dress was an aigret of maga bow, and sat down. Soon the sirdars, in turn, ad- nificent diamonds, some great pearls and rubies on vanced to the foot of the throne, salaaming low, and pre- his arms and neck ; his gold sash was ornamented
1 A rupee is equivalent to about fifty cents; one hundred with a buckle set with the finest brilliants; and his thousand rupees is a lac.
sword-hilt and sheath were richly studded with pre
cious stones. His state contains a population of own money, and maintained an army of some eigheleven hundred' and sixty-eight thousand, and has a teen thousand men, costing four million rupees a revenue of four million rupees, of which only two year. But there were treaties with England, in virhundred thousand go as tribute to the British Gov tue of which he was obliged to keep up a “continernment.
gent,” while England controlled the salt-manufactNext came Maharo Shree Pragmulgee Rao, of ures and the commerce, and maintained a resident Cutch, an infirm old seventeen-gun man, whose state in the capital. The gaekwar was charged with an contains six thousand five hundred square miles. attempt to poison the resident; whereupon the vice“ The population is under half a million, and the roy deposed him, and put him in confinement, norevenue but one million five hundred thousand ru- body seemed to know where. The widow of his pees. It was harshly dealt with by our rulers in predecessor had meanwhile adopted a little boy, and times past,” says Mr. Russell ; “but they did some the viceroy made him gaekwar, appointing Sir Magood, too, and now they are doing justice.” He dhava Rao, a Brahman of whom more anon, as actual went away quite satisfied at having seen Sir Bartle ruler of Baroda. Mr. Russell thus describes the re
ception of this child :
“ All eyes were dazzled when the little boy, whom the Government of India had installed as the Gaekwar of Baroda, stood at the threshold of the door-a crystallized rainbow. He is a small, delicately-framed lad for his twelve years and more, with a bright, pleasant face. He was weighted, head, neck, chest, arms, fingers, ankles, with such a sight and wonder of vast diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and pearls, as would be worth the loot of many a rich town. It is useless to give the estimate I heard of their value, and the little gentleman had more at home. He was met at the edge of the carpet, and strode with much solemnity to his seat, side by side with the prince. Sir Madhava Rao, Sir R. Meade, and a noble train of chiefs, came with him. The visit of the gaekwar lasted a minute or two longer than usual, for the prince asked several questions, and conversed with Sir Madhava Rao and Sir R. Meade. The former, the present regent, is one of the men who rise to the surface in Hindostan by sheer strength of talent, industry, and intelligence. He is a Mahratta Brahman, forty-seven years of age, and was educated in the High-School of the Madras University, where he was at one time acting Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. He subsequently filled several posts in the civil service, and was then appointed tutor and companion to the Prince of Travancore, and was made prime-minister of that state in 1858. In this capacity he acted for fourteen years, with such benefit to British native rule that he was made Knight of the Star of India, and was offered a seat in
the Legislative Council, which he declined. When the THE PRINCE IN SHOOTING-COSTUME.
viceroy deposed Mulhar Rao, and it became essential to place Baroda in the hands of a native statesman, the
British authorities applied to Sir Madhava Rao, who acFrere, although the prince only advanced half-way cepted the grave responsibility.” down the carpet to meet him.
These three receptions had consumed an hour, Mr. Russell goes on to speak in high terms of when the sound of a salute of twenty-one guns an the administrative ability displayed by this native nounced that some one of royal dignity was at hand. of India. “He has not begun by sweeping away It was no other than the Maharaja Syajce Rao, the all old institutions and customs, tearing up tradition Gaekwar of Baroda, nominally an independent by the roots, and leaving a bleeding and irritating state, which the British Government has quite re surface to receive the application of new ideas ; but cently undertaken to “protect” in a fashion of its he has worked on the old basis and repaired the an
Baroda is what is left of what was the mighty cient structure.” Men of similar power and character state of Guzerat in the days of Warren Hastings are clearly not very uncommon among the natives; How it was pared down by that able and unscrupu- and we believe that in this fact lies the essential lous statesman has been told by Macaulay. Not peril which menaces British rule in India. It must long before the visit of the Prince of Wales, Baroda, be borne in mind that in all India there are not at with a territory about as large as the State of Con- this day more than one hundred thousand Euronecticut, had a busy population of considerably more peans; and we do not think it possible that the two than two millions. The gaekwar was not a subject hundred millions or more of natives can very long, of the British Empire, had the right of coining his despite the loudest professions of loyalty to the em