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shun the poor more than they themselves imagine: they admit trifling excuses and pretences, all which would instantly vanish on the prospect of partaking of a splendid entertainment. Not that plain neatness, and cheerful simplicity, and virtuous indigence want charms; but to relish these the mind must be formed, the taste purified, beyond what is ordinarily to be expected; and the best dispositions may stand in need of some caution. I will only add, that if any should class hatred of poverty under avoiding, or under comparative hatred; the practical part of the subject, which is the most important, would receive little or no detriment from such an arrangement.
14. In the Epistle of Jude we meet with an instance of hating things inanimate. In the twenty-third verse mention is made of hating a garnient. And the ablutions and purifications which were in use amongst the Jews, seem to imply the same kind of hatred. Many inanimate things excite disgust; but such disgust may generally be accounted for by the association of ideas and feelings.
15. When we determine to avoid any thing, we frequently feel, in some respects, the same as when we hate: the Psalmist therefore expresses himself turally when he says, Psalm xxvi. 5. “ I have hated the congregation of the wicked, and will not sit among the ungodly.” And Solomon, when he says, Prov. xi. 15. “ he that hateth suretiship is sure.”
16. In like manner, when any undertaking is such that we have a repugnance to it; or when it is irksome; or when the remembrance of it is tedious and weari.. some, we feel in some respects as when we hate. The author of the book of Ecclesiastes therefore naturally adopts such expressions as these; “I hated life;" "'Í hated all my labour wlich I had taken under the Sun." The recollection of it was disgusting to him. Human Life, and labour, appeared to him to be vanity, and productive of vexation.
17. Envy is frequently mixed with hatred; many qualities appear to us more odious in him who is the cbject of our envy, than in other men. A successful
rival always makes us feel unsuccessful. Accordingly, he who is at the same time envied and hated, may be indifferently said to be the one or the other; we having no name for the compound sentiment. Instances of this sort of indifference we may observe in the natural language of Scripture. It is said, Gen. xxvii. 41. “ And Esau hated Jacob, because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him. Here was a competition for favor; wherefore Esau's sentiment might have been called envy, or jealousy; and perhaps with as much propriety as hatred. And it probably would have been called envy, in some passage, had the incidents been told repeatedly. This we may reasonably conclude from what is said by the sacred writers with regard to Joseph: Gen. xxxviť. 4. “And when his brethren Saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.” It is farther said, verses 5 and 8, that “ thev hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words.” But almost immediately afterwards, ver. li. it is said, “ his brethren envied him.” And in the Acts of the Apostles we read, vii. 9., that “ the patriarchs moved with envy sold Joseph into Egypt."
18. After what has been said, and what we daily observe, nothing need be here offered in order to prove, that it is natural for enemies, if they do not regulate their passions, to feel some hatred towards each other: whether they are enemies as individuals, or as menibers of different societies; political or religious. And the sentiment compounded of hatred and enmity, not haring a name of its own, may take the name of either of its parts. Accordingly, in Scripture we find it said, in one place, Gen. xxii. 17. that the descendants of Abraham should possess the gates of their enemics; and in another, Gen. xxiv. 60. that they should possess the gate of those that hated them. The Psalmist repeatedly uses as synonymous
so enemies” and “ those that hate. “ I hate them right sore,” says he, “even as though they were mine enemies. (See Psalın xxxviii. 19. Ixix. 4. cxxxix. 22. Compare Lev. xxvi. 17. Deut. vii. 15.) Hating the Lord seems to mean being cnemics to the Religion of Moses; or to Jehovah, as opposed to the Deities of the idolatrous nations. When (i John iii. 15.)
St. John says,
" Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer,” he probably has the idea of hatred producing, or produced by, enmity, and compounded with it; which, in a common course of things, naturally produces violence and bitter contentions, sometimes terminating in actual murder. He seems also to have that idea when 1 John ii. 9. he condemns hatred in general terms.
19. Moral disapprobation, or abhorrence of an action as wrong or vicious, is often compounded with hatred; because though these sentiments are in their nature distinct, many viccs are the occasion of their being both excited at the same time, or jointly. Thus when we see instances of pride, arrogance, falshood, selfishness, cruelty, we both feel moral abhorrence of the conduct, and dislike, or hatred, of the persons who are guilty of it. And
our compound sentiment may take either name.
The Psalmist uses both. “ As for lies, I hate and abhor them,” cxix. 163. Elsewhere he says, “) ye that love the Lord, see that ye hate the thing which is evil,” xcvii. 10. Whereas St Paul says, Rom. xii. 9. “ Abhor that which is evil.” And in the same Epistle he seems to use moral condemnation and hatred promiscuously. Rom. vii. 15. “ that which I do, I allow not,”_" but what I hate, that do I.” The expressions of Solomon in the character of Wisdom must hence appear easy and natural. 6. The fear of the Lord is to hate evil; pride and arrogancy, and the evil way, and the froward mouth do I hate," Prov. viii. 13. The Son of Sirach says, Ecclus. xxv. 2.
66 Three sorts of men my soul hateth, and I am greatly offended at their Life: a poor man that is proud, a rich man that is a liar, and an old adulterer that doteth.” Here are qualities at the same time odious and vicious: and hatred is directed to persons, and disapprobation to conduct. When the Deity is said to hate sin, hatred may perhaps be conceived to belong to the present head. It now only reînains, that we briefly exemplify what has been called hating comparatively, and hating in effect.
20. In the expression “ Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated,” Rom. ix. 13. Mal. i. 2, 3. nothing seems really to be signified but a preference of the younger brother to the elder. This preference might possibly have been otherwise expressed, had not a series
of blessings been conferred, for many successive ages, on the descendants of the younger brother, which were witheld from those of the elder. When blessings were so continued, it was natural to conceive them as the effects of love in the gracious and bountiful giver. As well as to call the laying waste of the mountains of Esau, and of his heritage, acts or effects of his hatred : especially in a poetical composition. Malachi, i. 2, 3. We find in the Law of Moses, Deut. xxi. 15. “If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated," I should doubt whether this meant any thing but that one wife was more beloved than the other. For in St. Luke's Gospel we find the expression; " If any man come to me, and hate not his father and mother;" (Luke xiv. 26 ;) And in St. Matthew's Gospel the same thing according to this form ; “ He that loveth Father or Mother more than me, is not worthy of me.' Matt. x. 37.
21. Lastly, What we have called hating in effect is so little liable to abuse, or even to be misunderstood, that it will be sufficient to mention an instance or two. " Whoso is partner with a thief hateth his own soul :” Prov. xxix. 24. And Prov. xiii. 24. “ He that spareth his rod hateth his son ;" hateth him in effect: doth that, perhaps from a mistaken tenderness, which is as pernicious as if he had acted from principles of hatred.
22. Having now considered the Nature of hatred, and the language of scripture in relation to it; I proceed to the second thing proposed ; ($4) which was to examine into its Effects, good and evil. For of its effects some are beneficial, though those which are hurtful are the more commonly noticed. We will begin with the beneficial effects of hatred.
23. In considering any part of our constitution we may have two different views; the one to justify the ways of God ; the other to find out the best conduct for man.
When we, in any degree, put ourselves in the place of the Governor of men, we conceive how men are likely to act; to what motives they are likely to yield ; on such expectations all rules of Government are founded. And maxims of Government, neglecting
particular excepted cascs, speak as if men were constantly impelled by certain motives; but when we point out the best sort of conduct to men, we suppose each man to be free to choose in every instance. Thus when a rule or law is made about admitting evidence, men are supposed to be influenced by private interest ; and therefore it is a maxim, that no one shall be a witness, and the same of a judge, in his own cause : but when a man is exhorted not on any account whatsoever, to bear false witness against his neighbour, no such thing is supposed; he is addressed as one who is, what he really feels himself to be, perfectly at liberty to give either false testimony or true. Nor is there any real contradiction or inconsistency between these two modes of speaking: each is natural in the circumstances in which it is used; but if men are not aware of the two different situations in which two such different forms of expression naturally arise, they will be apt to suspect inconsistency when in reality there is none. This being premised, we may proceed with the greater security.
24. Hatred, like other malevolent sentiments, when considered as a good, or as the work of our Creator, must be classed with those remedies for evils, (for it is impossible but that evils will come) which are not in themselves perfectly free from evil. Poisons which are antidotes to poisons, medicines or operations whiclı cause bodily pain in order to diminish bodily pain upon the whole, are of this class : And indeed so are all punishments, which are painful methods of preventing evils; of preventing hurtful attacks on person and property. And so is War, since that must be estimated as good which lessens evil; all these are good, so long as evil is lessened by them; (e) This was before obseryed of the Sword (53)
25. Each of the remedies which produce good by evil, has its peculiar manner of operation, and its own consequences. Our question is, what are the good consequences of hatred ? I could wish to be permitted to answer, that they have not yet been studied and arranged with accuracy sufficient to make our account of them as satisfactory as other accounts may be hereafter. But we may say, in short, that hatred does good by