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A similar scene occurred in No- suspended the active prosecution vember.

of it, and leaving a corps to conThe war in the Morea was a tinue the blockade, marched series of bloody skirmishes, in against the insurgents in Epirus, which the conqueror showed no who, after three attacks, retreated mercy to the vanquished. The in disorder with the loss of their Greeks rose successively on a artillery. . multitude of different points; and In November, Churchid receiv. the Turks, unable to keep the ed a fresh supply of Asiatic troops, field against their opponents, de which increased the besieging fended themselves in their for- army to 25,000 men, while Ali tresses. Many of these were re- was obliged, from the scarcity of duced, generally through famine, provisions, to diminish the superand the most solemn capitulations Auous numbers of his garrison, were violated on more occasions by seizing opportunities of sendthan one.

Malvasia, Novareno, ing detachments to disperse them. and Tripolizza were aken : Pa. selves among the mountains. A tras was besieged, but without small flotilla was also manned and success. The Turkish army in the armed for the purpose of attack, Morea is supposed not to have ex. ing the island of the lake, and ceeded five thousand men, and dispositions were made for caryet it gave ample employment to rying the forts of Janina by escathe Greeks though nearly four lade. The general assault was times their number. It is worth announced for the 20th of Nowhile to mention, that the Porte vember, but did not take place. issued a proclamation, purporting In the course of the month of to be made at the request of the December, Churchid got possesEnglish ambassador, by which the sion of the island of the lake, and commanders of the troops were prevailed upon the Albanian garrequired to take care, that the rison to open to him the gates of temples and antiquities of Athens the fortress of Litaritza; so that, should sustain no injury in the at the end of the year, Ali had operations of the war.

nothing left except his treasures, The revolt had spread far to the citadel, and a small body of the North. Thessaly, Ætolia, resolute adherents. Acarnania, and Epirus, were in a Vicinity to the seat of war, state of insurrection Churchid and the ties of a common descent Pacha, who still day before the and a common language with one forts of Janina, beleaguering the of the contending parties, had old Ali Pacha, after having made induced the people of the Ionian him an ineffectual offer of accom- islands to take a deep interest in modation, saw that his line of the operations and fortunes of the communication might soon be Greeks. The government had intercepted, and was forced to declared, that it would observe the dispatch three corps to resist the strictest neutrality; and it would rebels. Churchid himself was have been the grossest inconobliged to proceed into Thes- sistency for England, whilst she saly. Having received reinforce- was labouring to prevent hostiments, he renewed the siege; but lities between Turkey and Ruson the 2nd of September he again sia, to have permitted her own dependencies to attack the former ties, was forced to prohibit and power. She found, however, no punish acts, which flowed natusmall difficulty in enforcing the rally from generous feeling. neutrality, which it was her duty The difficulties of the Turks to observe. The ministers of re. seemed at one time likely to be ligion, under the very eye of the increased by a war with Persia. government, offered up public In September, two eruptions were prayers in the churches for the made into the Turkish dominions destruction of the Ottoman power. by the Persian princes Mahomed Vessels under the Ionian flag Ali Mirza and Abbas Mirza. cruized against the Turks, and The former penetrated into the joined in the blockade of the province of Bagdad; the latter, forts of Lepanto; and many ad- into that of Erzerum. This inventurers quitted the islands to vasion, occurring at such a moaugment the ranks of the insur- ment, might have given a mortal gents. Various decrees were is- blow to the Ottoman power sued to prevent or punish these in Asia. But in the following infringements of neutrality. By month, the Schah of Persia deone edict all vessels under the clared, that these operations had Ionian flag, taking an active part taken place without his know. in the war against the Ottoman ledge; that positive orders had Porte, were to be treated as pi- been since sent to the two princes rates. By another, all natives of not to permit any hostilities Parga, who had participated in against the Turkish provinces ; an attempt to retake the place of and that he had never any intentheir former abode, were expelled tion of engaging in a war with from the Ionian states, ten days the Porte. being allowed them for the re- During the present year, the moval of their families and their empire of Morocco was distracted property. On the 12th of Octo- by a contest for the crown beber, the troops who were em- tween the old emperor Muley ployed in Zante in preventing a Soliman and his nephew Muley Greek vessel from violating our Zeid. Several engagements apneutrality, were attacked by the pear to have taken place, in which inhabitants, and the island was the advantage was almost uniplaced under martial law. From formly on the side of the uncle ; the particular circumstances of and it was more than once bethe times the duties of the govern- lieved, that the struggle was at an ment of the Ionian islands were end, and that the nephew had necessarily at variance with the either fallen in battle or been feelings of their subjects. The taken prisoner. In November, latter could not but sympathise however, he had stilt an army in with their brethren in blood and the field, one division of which language, and share in their ar- was in possession of Tetuan. dent animosity against the Turkish This year may be regarded as oppressors : the government, on the date of the final extinction of the contrary, could not deviate the Mamelukes. These warriors, from neutrality, without plunging upon their expulsion from Egypt the whole East of Europe in war; in 1812, had established themand therefore, to perform its dua selves in Dongola, and occupying the islands and the western bank double that number of women and of the Nile from the frontier of slaves, they took their departure Dar Mahass as far as Hannech; for Shendy. intermarried with the natives, The subsequent story of this built and ornamented a capital, last rempant of the Mamelukes is promoted commerce, and in- soon told. The malech or king troduced improvements into the of Shendy, at first allowed them district of which they had ac. to encamp near

his capital, quired the dominion. But even though not within its walls; but here, the vengeance and ambition he was afterwards so terrified by of the Pacha of Egypt still pur- the successes of the Pacha over sued them. Mahommed Ali, eager the Sheygyá, that, being deterto annihilate the remnant of his mined not to offer any

resistance once formidable enemies, and to the conqueror, he ordered the anxious at the same time, to carry Mamelukes, in the beginning of his conquests to the borders of 1821, to quit his country. The Abyssinia, began, in 1820, to as- greater part of them retired under semble an army, which was des- the command of Rochman Bey tined to penetrate into the coun- towards Darfour, where they tries beyond the second cataract. would probably be either deWhile ihe preparations were go- stroyed or dispersed by an expeing on, he sent a message to New dition, which was at that moment Dongola, in the hope that flat- advancing thither from Egypt. tering promises might reduce the Some went in the opposite direcMamelukes into submission. Their tion to seek refuge on the banks only answer was an expression of of the Red Sea; and a few, it indignant contempt. Tell Ma- was said, forgetful of the fate of hommed Ali, that we will be on no all who had trusted to the prou terms with our servant." Hear- mises of Mahommed Ali, threw ing of the approach of his army, themselves on the mercy of their they celebrated the Ramadan persecutor. with unusual solemnity, and, in The army of the Pacha advanced the middle of June, mustering as far as Sennaar, and met every about three hundred strong (they where with ready submission from had lost about a hundred men, and the petty states, into which the amoog these was Ibrahim Bey, country, through which it had one of their two chicfs, during penetrated, was divided. their residence in Dongola), with

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CHAP. XIV.

United States-Formal Occupation of the Floridas– New Territory

Purchased-A Colony sent out to AfricaAdmission of Missouri into the Union- The President's Message-The State of the Finances Reports of Committees.- COLUMBIA.- Renewal of Hostilities-Military Operations-Battle of Carabobo-Surrender of La Guayra and Carthagena-Congress of Columbia.—Mexico. Insurrection Mexican Independence acknowledged by the Treaty of Cordova-Iturbide's Entry into the Capital.-Buenos Ayres.- Death of Ramirez, Guernes, and Carrera - Administration of Rivadavia.- Peru.-Operations of the Fleet under Lord Cochrane-Seizure of British Ships -San Martin's Operations-Defeat of Riccafort - ArmisticeLima evacuated by the Spaniards Declaration of Peruvian Independence-Decrees of San Martin-Surrender of Callao.-HAYTI. --Piracies-Canada– Newfoundland-Military Operations in India and Arabia.

PAIN having formally ratified missioner on the part of Spain

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the Floridas, the United States empted him ; but Jackson was on the 17th of July took formal inflexible. The prisoners then possession of these much-coveted had recourse to the assistance of provinces. The agreeable office the law; and a judge, Fromentin was intrusted to general Jackson, by name, issued a habeas corpus who executed it with all the rude for Callava and his brother captyranny of a republican. Colonel tive. This writ the gaoler dared Callava, the Spanish commandant not obey; and referred the matter of Pensacola and governor of to Jackson. The general consi. West Florida, duly resigned his dered the habeas corpus an outauthority into Jackson's hands; rage upon the authority which it and the first use which Jackson had been issued to controul or made of his newly-acquired power qualify, and cited the judge bę was to throw Callava and one of fore him. That

personage, luckily his officers into prison, on the perhaps for his own freedom, was pretence that he had retained in indisposed, and could not obey his possession certain public do- the summons. In the mean time cuments to which the United Callava gave up the documents in States were entitled. Callava question, and was restored to protested strongly against this liberty. indignity, from which he asserted A similar transaction took place that his rank, both as former go. in Eastern Florida. Colonel Copvernor of Florida, and as a com- penger, the Spanish governor of that province, was compelled by tended to fix their establishment. the American agents to surrender Upon a representation from our to them papers to which they had countrymen, of the inconvenino right. In a statement pub- ences which would result from lished by him, which he verified such a plan, they sent a detach. by oath, before a notary public at ment towards the mouth of the St. Augustine's, he declared that river Mesurada to look for a less “ the archives remaining in his objectionable position.

In the charge were those containing the nterval that elapsed, before they correspondence with his govern- could determine on the site of ment, which had been carried on their future settlement, and beby himself and the preceding go-fore the setting in of the dry seavernors, relative to the employ- son enabled them to proceed to ments filled by the several func- it, they experienced" from the tionaries: that he had no docu- British colony the most hospitable ments which had any relation, reception. This was the first endirectly or indirectly, to the pro- terprise of the kind, which the perty and sovereignty of the na- United States had undertaken. tion; and, in one word, that the The admission of the state of archives in question were a parti- Missouri into the Union had been cular property, which he was long and warmly contested in bound to deliver to his captain. congress. In the session which general, and were positively ex- commenced towards the end of cepted in the treaty."

last year, an act had been passed Jackson proceeded immediately for conferring that privilege on to divide the Floridas for judicial Missouri, provided she made a purposes into two counties, declaration, through her separate namely:-All the country be- legislature, that no part of her tween the Perdido and Suwaney constitution should exclude any. rivers, and the islands therein, to citizen of the other states of the be called the county of Escambia; union from the privileges and imAll the ceded territory east of munities enjoyed under the conthe Suwaney, &c., to be called stitution of the United States. the county of St. John's.

That condition was fulfilled by a The United States made like. solemn public act of the assembly wise an acquisition of territory to of Missouri on the 26th of June'; the westward of the lakes, by and on the 10th of August, the purchasing above five millions of proclamation of the president, acres of fertile land from the In. announcing the admission, was dians. The price paid for this issued. tract, equal in extent to one- On the 5th of December, the fourth of Ireland, was merchan- president transmitted his annual dize to the value of 25,000 dol- message to the congress. It conlars, and an annual payment of tained a clear and distinct view less than 2,0001.

of the internal situation and foEarly in the year, a colony of reign relations of the United American

setilers arrived at Ştates: and to it therefore (see Sierra Leone, in the neighbour- page 614 of this volume) we refer hood of which they at first in- our readers for distinct' informa

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