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the elevation of sentiment, which frequently marks have come down to us from the imaginative Mr. Gladstone's “Gleanings.” He is not merely storehouse of mediæval Europe. The connecattracted by what is noble and great in sentiment, tion between these “ twin systems,” and again and all the fairer traits of our higher nature, but their “consanguinity to the primitive Homeric there is an elevated and poetic glow at times in types," are very happily expounded by him. Insuch criticisms as those on Leopardi and Tenny- genuity never fails him in tracing analogies and son which carry their author beyond the mere contrasts; but there is here far more than ingecritical sphere, and show that he is capable of nuity. There is a genuine, living, and richly being touched to finer issues. As a student of thoughtful insight in the parallel which he draws Homer and Dante, he is familiar with the loftiest between the typical forms of the Carlovingian and richest poetic ideals; and these ideals have romance on the one hand, and the romance of evidently sunk deep into his mind. They have the Round Table on the other. The latterbred in him a kindred enthusiasm, and, what is if far less vivid and brilliant, far ruder as a work of more, an enthusiasm which is capable of being skill and art, has more of the innocence, the emofired alike by the heroism of Hellenic and the tion, the transparency, the inconsistency, of childhumilities of Christian virtue. He is entirely free hood. Its political action is less specifically Chrisfrom the classical furore which has been rampant tian than that of the rival scheme ; its individual in many quarters of late, and whose craze is a re- portraits more so. It is more directly and seriously turn to mere pagan ideals. Unlike Leopardi and aimed at the perfection of man. It is more free the pessimist school, which may be said to date from gloss and varnish ; it tells its own tale with from him, he has fed his genius “on the Mount more entire simplicity. The ascetic element is more of Sion" not less than “on the Mount of the strongly, and at the same time more quaintly, deParthenon," " by the brook of Cedron no less veloped. It has a higher conception of the nature than “ by the waters of Ilissus." While recog- of woman ; and, like the Homeric poems, it appears nizing the prophetic element in Homer, and en

to eschew exhibiting her perfections in alliance with

warlike force and exploits. So also love, while raptured by his exquisite creations—and no one has described them with a more vivid and bright- largely infused into the story, is more subordinate

to the exhibition of other qualities. Again, the ly-tinctured pencil—he yet bows before the higher

romance of the Round Table bears witness to a prophetic genius of Isaiah, and sees in the mar

more distinct and keener sense of sin, and, on the velous ideals of Christian poets, from Dante to whole, a deeper, broader, and more manly view of Tennyson, a more perfect bloom of the human human character, life, and duty. It is in effect more mind and character. Achilles and Ulysses, Pe- like what the Carlovingian cycle might have been nelope and Helen, Hector and Diomed, are all had Dante molded it. “immortal products." But

No higher subject, according to our author, the Gospel has given to the life of civilized man a could have been selected for poetical treatmentreal resurrection, and its second birth was followed and in Mr. Tennyson's hands it has assumed, if by its second youth. Awakened to aspirations at once fresh and ancient, the mind of man took hold not the proportions, yet the essential dignity of a of the venerable ideals bequeathed to us by the great epic. The title of “ Idylls" is condemned as Greeks as a precious part of its inheritance, and inadequate to the “ breadth, vigor, and majesty" gave them again to the light, appropriated but also of the theme, “as well as to the execution of renewed. The old materials came forth, but not the volume.” But nothing can be finer than the alone ; for the types which human genius had for. criticism which follows of the four “ Books," as merly conceived were now submitted to the trans- the critic prefers to call them. It is at once elabfiguring action of a law from on high. Nature her. orate, delicate, and profound. No criticism has self prompted the effort to bring the old patterns ever placed Mr. Tennyson higher-none could of worldly excellence and greatness-or rather, the well do so — but high-pitched as is the strain copies of these patterns, still legible, though de- throughout, it rises naturally from the close analypraved, and still rich with living suggestion — into sis to which the poems are subjected, and the harmony with that higher Pattern once seen by the felicitous presentation of their tender or heroic eyes, and handled by the hands of men, and faith, types of character. The spirit of a true poet, fully delineated in the Gospels for the profit of all which Mr. Tennyson has shown from the first, generations.

and all the characteristics of his genius are seen In this great example Mr. Gladstone recog- here in ripened forms— nizes “the true source of that new and noble

the delicate insight into beauty, the refined percepcycle" of character which has been preserved to

tion of harmony, the faculty of suggestion, the eye, us in the two great systems of romance—the one both in the physical and moral world, for emotion, associated with our own Arthur in England and light, and color, the sympathetic and close observathe other with Charlemagne in France—which tion of nature, the dominance of the constructive

faculty, and that rare gift, the thorough mastery and period of the most profound religious disturbance, loving use of his native tongue. ... The music when so many have not only lost their early dogand the just and pure modulation of his verse carry matic creed, but lost all faith whatever in a spirus back not only to the fine ear of Shelley, but to itual order and a life beyond the present, the Milton and to Shakespeare ; and his powers of fancy writer of these essays holds fast not only to reliand expression have produced passages which, if they gion, but apparently to every jot and tittle of are excelled by that one transcendent and ethereal Anglican orthodoxy. His mind remains imbedpoet of our nation whom we have last named, yet ded in the great forms of dogma on which it was hardly could have been produced by any other min- originally based, untouched not merely by the strel.

destructive but by the historical spirit of his age. “ Finally, the chastity and moral elevation” Christianity is with him, as with all his school, of the “ Idylls,” their “essential and profound the Christianity of the creeds of the fourth or though not didactic Christianity, are such as per- later centuries. It is bound up with the Nicene, haps can not be matched throughout the circle or even the Athanasian dogma, and with a sysof English literature in conjunction with an equal tem of government, discipline, and worship depower."

scending (as he supposes) from the Apostolic age Here, as always, our author's religious senti- to the present time. Nothing can be more emments come out strongly, and it is necessary, be- phatic than his repeated assertion that Christianfore completing our notice, to advert more par- ity is only fully vital when thus conceived as a ticularly to this marked feature of his writing. whole, both dogmatically and ecclesiastically, as We can not otherwise do full justice to its char- “a tradition firmly anchored in the Bible, and acter or the genius that inspires it. Of all writers interpreted and sustained by the unvarying voices of our day none is more distinguished for the of believers from the first beginning of known constant assertion of religious principles of the records.” * Religion is little to him unless “inmost definite kind. It is not merely that his cased in the well-knit skeleton of a dogmatic and pages are everywhere imbued with religious feel- ecclesiastical system.” " Christianity," he speing, or that he always puts forth a Christian cially says, standard of judgment. He writes not merely as a Christian, but as an Anglo-Catholic ; and it is is the religion of the person of Christ ; and the creeds startling to the lay reader to find himself so fre- only tell us from whence he came, and how he came quently in contact with the most definite types of with him, and what is the manner of his appointed

and went, by what agent we are to be incorporated theological and ecclesiastical opinion. Mr. Glad

agency and the seal of its accomplishment. .. The stone challenges the declaration of Mr. Trevelyan doctrinal part of the Revelation has a full and cothat his uncle had a strong and decided taste for equal share with the moral part. The Christian systheological speculation. He can see no evidence tem neither enforces nor permits any severance of in Macaulay's writings that he knew much of the two. theology. This can not certainly be said of his critic. The most abstruse definitions of Chris

Again : tian doctrine, the distinctions of Augustinianism Ministerial succession is, we apprehend, the only and Pelagianism, of Calvinism and Arminianism, rational foundation of Church power. For unless of the sixteenth and seventeenth century theol- Church power came by a definite intelligible charge ogy, of the Anglican and Presbyterian codes, of capable of delivery from man to man, how did it the Evangelical and the Oxford schools, are all come ? . . . And if the mission of the twelve, so at his fingers' ends. It may be doubted whether solemnly conveyed by our Lord, and so authentically the Church has not lost in him a great scholastic, sealed by him with the promise of perpetuity, is to whatever the state may have gained or lost by be struck out of the scheme of his gospel, his holy him. His mind, indeed, is rich beyond any mere

sacraments will not long survive (except as mere power of scholastic dialectics. It has a native shows) that ministry to whose hands they were comfreshness and vigor unspoiled by the schools. them will naturally in its turn be followed by a gen

mitted; and the loss of the true doctrine concerning Yet they have everywhere left their impress upon eral corruption and destruction of true Christian behim, and their dogmatism crops out in the most lief concerning the divine grace of which they were unexpected manner in the midst of biographic appointed to be the especial channels and deposianalysis, and even the delightful fluencies of poetic tories. description.

In this respect more than any other Mr. Glad The meaning of these grave assertions is unstone's mind seems to have made little or no ad- mistakable; and it is certainly one of the most vance, or, if the word advance be deemed inap

* “ Nineteenth Century," October, 1879, “Olympian plicable from his own point of view, seems to System versus Solar Theory," the last production of Mr. have undergone little or no change. During a Gladstone's pen in the periodical press.

astonishing facts of our time that a mind so rest er Scotch or English, or any other nationality, less and subtile, so energetic and penetrating, and, But it will hardly be denied that there is a type moreover, so capable of moving with effect in the of Anglican culture peculiarly insensible to a purely human atmosphere of literature, should fair-minded appreciation of characteristics difhave retained a dogmatic standpoint so little able fering from its own. And although Mr. Gladto withstand critical analysis. To hold the dog- stone rises far above any Philistinism of this mas of the fourth century as if they were deliv- kind, there is yet a certain harshness in many of ered from heaven “ a divine gift," and the minis- his intellectual and religious judgments which try of the Church of England as if it were the savors of austerity. The crust of old prejudice perpetuity of the apostolic office, is a marvelous clings sometimes to his freshest utterances. And exercise of faith in a time like ours; but it is also prejudice of any kind, however venerable, is ala curious indication of that lack of genuine his- ways a limiting power in the sphere of literature. toric culture which, with all his other great en- It may pervade a college court; it may give emdowments, is not found in Mr. Gladstone. The phasis and sharpness to a theological argument; modern historical spirit is, indeed, a growth long but literature claims “an ampler ether, a diviner subsequent to his Oxford career, and has never air.” And Mr. Gladstone, as a man of letters, apparently touched him, a fact which many of would have been a richer and certainly a more his Homeric speculations conspicuously illustrate, commanding and original genius if he had risen With large power of research, and of accumulat- more above its confining influence. ing in graphic masses historical details, he has In close connection with this narrowness of no higher insight into historic method, or the real thought is his tendency to paradox. He sees genesis and growth of great ideas and institu- affinities which do not exist, and he is blind to tions. This is a definite deficiency betrayed in resemblances which more open-minded students many of these essays, and without regard to which plainly recognize. He twits Macaulay with conwe can not estimate ght his intellectual nor founding the theology of the Seventeenth Article perhaps his political character. More than any- with the general Calvinism of the sixteenth centhing else, it is the source of his one-sided reli- tury—the “ portentous code” framed at Lambeth gious speculativeness—perhaps also of his one- before its close. But Macaulay, although far less sided and sometimes headlong biases in public versed in technical theology, is here nearer the life. More than anything else, it explains his mark than his critic. The Seventeenth Article devotion to what he esteems principles rather is Calvinistic beyond all doubt. It is more happithan institutions.

ly expressed, indeed, than the plain-spoken and There never was a more absurd accusation ugly propositions of the Lambeth Articles; but made against Mr. Gladstone than that of indiffer- its meaning is so far distinctly the same. And ence to principle. Through all these productions Macaulay was too much of an historical student of a long life he is a writer of singularly stead- —untinctured by any dogmatic prejudices—not fast principle. From first to last he knows in to know that the theology of the Church of Engwhat he believes, and is assured that it is true land in the sixteenth century, like that of all the and right. He may abandon a principle once Churches of the Reformation, was what is comfirmly held, as in the case of the Irish Church, monly called Calvinistic. The same great lines elaborately explained by him in his chapter of of thought, transmitted from Augustine, adopted autobiography in the last volume, but in all his by Luther, received it may be in more rigid form writings, as, no doubt, in all his actions, he works by Calvin, were accepted as of divine authority forward from a strong and firm ground of con- in the Reformed Church of England no less than viction. He is never lacking in dogma, whether in the Protestant Churches on the Continent, and it be right or wrong. What he lacks is width in the Church of Scotland. It is the fashion, we and geniality of historic comprehension, love for know, to deny this, and to represent “Calvinism' the manifold and diverse in human life and hu- as an exceptional product of Geneva and Scotman institutions—heartiness and tenderness of land. It is needless and very unhistorical to appreciation (as, for example, in his judgment of quarrel about a name. Geneva of course was Unitarianism)* for that with which he does not intimately connected with Scotland, and the agree—the grounds of which he does not find name of the Genevan divine was intimately in his own intellectual or moral nature. In many stamped upon its theology. But Macaulay very things Scotch, he is in this respect thoroughly well knew that it is not the name but the thing English, and of a narrow school. The incapaci- which is important, and that a system of thought ty of judging fairly what we do not like is un- embracing the same great principles as to the happily a characteristic of human nature, wheth- divine sovereignty and the operation of divine

grace, is the same whether it be called Augus* Vol. ii., p. 18.

tinian or Calvinian, or a portentous Lambeth

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Code. The “Calvinistic formulæ" of Scotland, embrace, is clearly intelligible and has been often like its judaical Sabbatarianism, may be “simply exhibited in our time. It is not necessary on this a form of Protestant tradition founded neither on account to say that Tractarian Catholicism has the Word of God nor on the general consent of prepared the way for Rome. This is the lanChristendom ";* but if so, the Augustinian for- guage of controversial politics and not of historimulæ and the theology of the Seventeenth Arti- cal induction. But to say that the evangelical cle are no better. Whether well or ill founded scheme must share the blame of any transition is no matter for the present purpose, save as to Rome because the buddings of a religious life showing how Mr. Gladstone's school theology which may have ended there were “in form and has blinded him to those deeper affinities of color evangelical,” is the obvious language of thought and history which a mind like Macau- paradox. Every system must be judged by its lay's, with less depth but more openness and own natural fruits, and not by the accidents breadth, readily perceived.

which may have attended it. And it remains Again, when our essayist recognizes in the beyond doubt that the principles of the evangeliEvangelical movement not merely a precursor cal theory are radically at variance with those of but a cause of Tractarianism, he is misled by the the Roman system, with which, on the contrary, same imperfect insight into the meaning of the the principles of Anglo-Catholicism have a cerphenomena before him. It is possibly true that tain affinity. Romanism is not an illogical desome of the most ardent leaders of the new velopment of the one. It is the antithesis of the movement came from evangelical families, and other; and the evangelical scheme, although it had tasted of the excitements of evangelical may have nursed for a time men who afterward teaching But this is little to the point. It became Romanists, is no more responsible for merely shows, as pointed out elsewhere,t " that such a result—even at second hand-than Mr. a religious movement naturally recruits itself from Gladstone himself, according to Mr. Lecky's comthose who are interested in religious matters, and parison, can be held responsible for the excesses therefore specially susceptible to any fresh spirit- of our present foreign policy, because his accenual impulse.” Such minds most readily catch tuated Liberalism may have produced, by way of the contagious force of a new excitement. But reaction, the present Tory Government.* this proves nothing of casual relation between But we must draw this paper to a close with the movements. The receding tide of evangelical a special glance at Mr. Gladstone's literary style. fervor was caught by the rising tide of Anglo- Such quotations as we have made give, upon the Catholicism, and activities which might have whole, a fair idea of it. It is powerful, flexible, gone in the one direction were turned in the and elaborately if not gracefully expressive. It other. But the two tides ran from wholly differ- has all the vigor and swell of the substance of ent sources, and have never coalesced save in his thought. But, just as he often seems to be this accidental manner. Both have their source thinking on his legs and casting forth in an imin deep-seated principles which the Church of petuous cataract the current of his ideas, so does England has been comprehensive enough from his style move with 'uneasy, and swaying, and the first to inclose within her bosom. The Cal- often too vehement force—a force always more vinism which Mr. Gladstone can not see in the or less rhetorical, often pictured and eloquent, Articles, but which has powersully moved Angli- but sometimes singularly clumsy, and seldom can Christianity at more than one period of its facile or delicate. Yet he surprises the reader history, is the natural congener of the one; the at times by a happy figure, touched lightly and Catholicism so dear to him, and no less an in- beautifully, as when he says of the confidential herited and active religious power in England, is outpourings of Bishop Patteson, in his letters to the true parent of the other. They have each his sister at home, that they were “like flowers “their standing-points in the formularies, the- caught in their freshness, and perfectly preserved ology, and historical traditions” of the Church, in color and in form.” but they are essentially and radically opposed in We confess to having formed a higher idea theory. The one aims to Protestantize, the other than we had of Mr. Gladstone's powers as a mere to Catholicize. The one looks upon Rome as the writer by an attentive perusal of these “ Glean“ mother of abomination ”; the other regards herings.” The first impression one gets of his style as a true, if fallen, parent. The process by which is disappointing. It looks fatiguing. It does not in the one case the ancient mother becomes once invite, nor does it readily lead, the reader along, mcre glorified, and the Anglo-Catholic passes even when he has yielded to the impulse and felt from wistful longing into believing and hopeful the fascination of a strong mind. But at last it

lays hold of the attention. We are caught in its * Vol. ii., p. 360, “ Dr. Norman Macleod.” + " Nineteenth Century,” August, 1879, p. 287.

* " Nineteenth Century," August, 1879, p. 289.

sweep and made to feel that we are in the hands convicted minds and perfunctory performers of a of a master who knows his subject and will not measure of stipulated duty, who supplied so conlet us go till he has brought us to some share of siderable a number of the clerical host.” his own knowledge. We may feel not unfre But, even if such sentences were more comquently that he is far more subtile than true, more mon, they are but blemishes in an intellectual ingenious in theory than penetrating in insight, feast; and, if we are to estimate writing not more intent on making out a case than in going merely by the momentary pleasure it gives, but to the root of a difficulty; that he is conventional by the elevation and moral as well as mental rather than critical, and traditional where he stimulus it imparts, we must attach a high value ought to be historical; still, there is the glow of to many of Mr. Gladstone's essays. It would an intense genius everywhere, and the splendor be difficult to say how far they may survive as of a rhetoric which often rises into passion and monuments of his literary genius. They are never degenerates into meanness. Clumsy his more likely to do so, we believe, than his Hostyle certainly can be at times, in an extraordi- meric speculations, labors of love and special nary degree, as in such a sentence as the follow- knowledge as these are. But, whatever may be ing, speaking of the evangelical clergy and the their fate, they are remarkable and marvelously estimate to be formed of their activity and moral interesting as products of literary devotion and influence: “The vessels of zeal and fervor, taken ambition in a mind of intense activity, amid the man by man, far outweighed the heroes of the pauses of a great public career. ballroom and the hunting-field, or the most half

Fraser's Magazine.

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“Pooh!” said Stephen. “ What had she CHAPTER XXIV.

got to tell? I say there never was any mar



say that possibly there was. How about

false names ? It's always the old women one ONI

NE evening, Stephen met Jack Baker, which has got to fear most. One must trust them ;

was not unusual, at the club. They dined they know everything; they make up what they together. Jack's manner was mysterious. He are not told ; they never die, and they turn up at whispered that he had something to communi- the wrong moment, just when they are not wantcate after dinner. He hurried through the meal ed, and let it all out. Hamblin, I wish I hadn't with a haste quite unusual with him, and, as stood in with you.” soon as possible, led Stephen into a little room, “Hang it, man ! you are not afraid of your never used till much later in the evening, called paltry thousand, are you ?” the strangers' card-room.

“Well, if you come to that, a thousand is a “Sit down, Hamblin."

thousand, and it takes a mighty long time to " What the deuce is the meaning of all this make it." mystery, Jack ?"

“And you stand to win a thousand." "This. They've found something."

“I want to know what this old woman had “What do you mean?”

to tell,” Jack Baker went on doggedly. Stephen turned pale.

Man alive! Let the old woman go to the “You know they have been advertising and devil.” offering rewards ? Very well

, then. Something But Stephen's cheek continued pale. He was has come out of it. A clerk of mine knows a not easy about that old woman. Had the men clerk in Hamblin's. The clerks there are tre- known that she was plain Mrs. Duncombe, once mendously excited about the business. My man nurse to Alison, their apprehensions would have is to learn whatever goes on. He reports to-day been calmed. that an old woman called and sent up her name Look here, old man,” said Jack, “let us in an envelope, saying she had come in answer smooth matters a bit. Why not make it a to an advertisement."

friendly suit ? Hang it! if I had a month's VOL. VIII.-4


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